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Journal of Advanced Transportation
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 5649823, 13 pages
Research Article

Optimal Signal Design for Mixed Equilibrium Networks with Autonomous and Regular Vehicles

Key Laboratory of Road and Traffic Engineering of the Ministry of Education, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China

Correspondence should be addressed to Nan Jiang; nc.ude.ijgnot@ujtnangnaij9891

Received 30 April 2017; Accepted 13 June 2017; Published 16 August 2017

Academic Editor: Xiaobo Qu

Copyright © 2017 Nan Jiang. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


A signal design problem is studied for efficiently managing autonomous vehicles (AVs) and regular vehicles (RVs) simultaneously in transportation networks. AVs and RVs move on separate lanes and two types of vehicles share the green times at the same intersections. The signal design problem is formulated as a bilevel program. The lower-level model describes a mixed equilibrium where autonomous vehicles follow the Cournot-Nash (CN) principle and RVs follow the user equilibrium (UE) principle. In the upper-level model, signal timings are optimized at signalized intersections to allocate appropriate green times to both autonomous and RVs to minimize system travel cost. The sensitivity analysis based method is used to solve the bilevel optimization model. Various signal control strategies are evaluated through numerical examples and some insightful findings are obtained. It was found that the number of phases at intersections should be reduced for the optimal control of the AVs and RVs in the mixed networks. More importantly, incorporating AVs into the transportation network would improve the system performance due to the value of AV technologies in reducing random delays at intersections. Meanwhile, travelers prefer to choose AVs when the networks turn to be congested.