Table of Contents
Journal of Botany
Volume 2010, Article ID 701975, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2010/701975
Research Article

Analysis of Genetic Diversity in Astragalus rhizanthus Benth. ssp. rhizanthus var. rhizanthus (Fabaceae) Using Molecular Markers from India

Plant Biodiversity & Conservation Biology Division, National Botanical Research Institute (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research), Lucknow 226 001, India

Received 1 September 2009; Accepted 23 February 2010

Academic Editor: Takashi Hashimoto

Copyright © 2010 Kumar Kamal Anand et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. D. Podlech, “Taxonomic and phytogeographical problems in Astragalus of old world and South–West Asia,” Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, vol. 89B, pp. 37–43, 1986. View at Google Scholar
  2. S. H. Zarre and D. Podlech, “Problems in the taxonomy of tragacanthic Astragali,” Sendtnera, vol. 4, pp. 243–250, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  3. A. A. Maassoumi, Astragalus L. in the World, Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Tehran, Iran, 1998.
  4. L. B. Chuadhary, K. K. Anand, and R. K. Srivastava, “Taxonomic study of endemic species of Astragalus L. (Fabaceae) of India,” Taiwania, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 216–237, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  5. L. B. Chaudhary and S. K. Srivastava, “Taxonomic and distributional notes on some Astragalus L. (Fabaceae) in India,” Taiwania, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 25–48, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  6. D. Podlech, “Revision von Astragalus L. sect. Caprini DC. (Leguminosae),” Mitteilungen Botanische Staatssam München, vol. 25, pp. 1–294, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  7. L. B. Chaudhary, T. S. Rana, and K. K. Anand, “Current status of the systematics of Astragalus L. (Fabaceae) with special reference to the Himalayan species in India,” Taiwania, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 338–355, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  8. M. J. Sanderson, “Phylogenetic relationship within North American Astragalus L. (Fabaceae),” Systematic Botany, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 414–430, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  9. A. Liston, “Variation in the chloroplast genes rpoC1 and rpoC2 of the genus Astragalus (Fabaceae): evidence from restriction site mapping of a PCR amplified fragment,” American Journal of Botany, vol. 79, no. 8, pp. 953–961, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  10. M. F. Wojciechowski, M. J. Sanderson, and J.-M. Hu, “Evidence on the monophyly of Astragalus (Fabaceae) and its major subgroups based on nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS and chloroplast DNA trnL intron data,” Systematic Botany, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 409–437, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. F. Wojciechowski, “Astragalus (Fabaceae): a molecular phylogenetic perspective,” Brittonia, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 382–396, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  12. S. Kazempour Osaloo, A. A. Maassoumi, and N. Murakami, “Molecular systematics of the genus Astragalus L. (Fabaceae): phylogenetic analysis of nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacers and chloroplast gene ndhF sequences,” Plant Systematics and Evolution, vol. 242, no. 1–4, pp. 1–32, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  13. S. Kazempour Osaloo, A. A. Maassoumi, and N. Murakami, “Molecular systematics of the old world Astragalus (Fabaceae) as inferred from nrDNA ITS sequence data,” Brittonia, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 367–381, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  14. H. Hamada and T. Kakunaga, “Potential Z-DNA forming sequences are highly dispersed in the human genome,” Nature, vol. 298, no. 5872, pp. 396–398, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. D. Tautz and M. Renz, “Simple sequences are ubiquitous repetitive components of eukaryotic genomes,” Nucleic Acids Research, vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 4127–4138, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. R. Condit and S. P. Hubbell, “Abundance and DNA sequence of two-base repeat regions in tropical tree genomes,” Genome, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 66–71, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. M. Gupta, Y. S. Chyi, J. Romero-Severson, and J. L. Owen, “Amplification of DNA markers from evolutionarily diverse genomes using single primers of simple-sequence repeats,” Theoretical and Applied Genetics, vol. 89, no. 7-8, pp. 998–1006, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. Y. Tsumura, K. Ohba, and S. H. Strauss, “Diversity and inheritance of inter-simple sequence repeat polymorphisms in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and sugi (Cryptomeria japonica),” Theoretical and Applied Genetics, vol. 92, no. 1, pp. 40–45, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. J. G. K. Williams, A. R. Kubelik, K. J. Livak, J. A. Rafalski, and S. V. Tingey, “DNA polymorphisms amplified by arbitrary primers are useful as genetic markers,” Nucleic Acids Research, vol. 18, pp. 6531–6535, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  20. A. D. Wolfe and A. Liston, “Contributions of PCR based methods to plant systematics and evolutionary biology,” in Molecular Systematics of Plants II: DNA Sequencing, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis, and J. J. Doyle, Eds., pp. 43–86, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, Mass, USA, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  21. J. Harris, “RAPDs in systematics-a useful methodology?” in Molecular Systematics and Plant Evolution, P. M. Hollingsworth, R. M. Bateman, and R. J. Gornall, Eds., pp. 221–228, Taylor & Francis, London, UK, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  22. D. D. Heath, G. K. Iwama, and R. H. Devlin, “PCR primed with VNTR core sequences yields species specific patterns and hypervariable probes,” Nucleic Acids Research, vol. 21, no. 24, pp. 5782–5785, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. W. Chase and H. H. Hills, “Silica gel: an ideal material for field preservation of leaf samples for DNA studies,” Taxon, vol. 40, pp. 215–220, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  24. Z. Zhou and J. P. Gustafson, “Genetic variation detected by DNA fingerprinting with a rice minisatellite probe in Oryza sativa L.,” Theoretical and Applied Genetics, vol. 91, no. 3, pp. 481–488, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. A. Pavlicek, S. Hrda, and J. Flegr, “FreeTree-freeware program for construction of phylogenetic trees on the basis of distance data and Bootstrap/Jackknife analysis of the tree robustness. Application in the RAPD analysis of genus Frenkelia,” Folia Biologica, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 97–99, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. R. D. M. Page, “Tree view (win 32),” ver. 1.6.5., 2001, http://taxonomy.zoology.gla.ac.uk/rod/treeview.html.
  27. M. Nei, “Genetic distance between popultions,” The American Naturalist, vol. 106, pp. 283–292, 1972. View at Google Scholar
  28. C. E. Shannon and W. Weaver, The Mathematical Theory of Communication, University of Illinois press, Urbana, Ill, USA, 1949.
  29. F. C. Yeh, R. Yang, and T. Boyle, “POPGENE- a Microsoft Windows based freeware for population genetic analysis,” ver. 1.32 (32 bit), 1997, http://www.ualberta.ca/~fyeh/.
  30. V. J. Sant, A. G. Patankar, N. D. Sarode et al., “Potential of DNA markers in detecting divergence and in analysing heterosis in Indian elite chickpea cultivars,” Theoretical and Applied Genetics, vol. 98, no. 8, pp. 1217–1225, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. M.-C. Luo, K.-K. Hwu, and T.-C. Huang, “Taxonomic study of Taiwan Astragalus based on genetic variation,” Taxon, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 35–46, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. J. A. Alexander, A. Liston, and S. J. Popovich, “Genetic diversity of the narrow endemic Astragalus oniciformis (Fabaceae),” American Journal of Botany, vol. 91, no. 12, pp. 2004–2012, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  33. H.-J. Na, J.-Y. Um, S.-C. Kim et al., “Molecular discrimination of medicinal Astragali radix by RAPD analysis,” Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 265–272, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. M. Mehrnia, S. Zarre, and A. Sokhan-Sanj, “Intra- and inter-specific relationships within the Astragalus microcephalus complex (Fabaceae) using RAPD,” Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 149–158, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. L. B. Chaudhary, T. S. Rana, D. Narzary, and S. Verma, “A new species of Astragalus L. (Leguminosae) from India based on morphological and molecular markers,” Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, vol. 154, pp. 27–34, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  36. S. Zarre, Z. Khodaei, Z. Karamali, V. Niknam, and M. Mirmasoumi, “Isoenzyme variation patterns and species concept in Astragalus gossypinus and Astragalus persicus complexes (Fabaceae) in Iran,” Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, vol. 35, no. 11, pp. 757–763, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. N. Jain, A. K. Shasany, V. Sundaresan et al., “Molecular diversity in Phyllanthus amarus assessed through RAPD analysis,” Current Science, vol. 85, no. 10, pp. 1454–1458, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. R. S. Dangi, M. D. Lagu, L. B. Choudhary, P. K. Ranjekar, and V. S. Gupta, “Assessment of genetic diversity in Trigonella foenum-graecum and Trigonella caerulea using ISSR and RAPD markers,” BMC Plant Biology, vol. 4, article 13, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus