Journal of Botany

Journal of Botany / 2011 / Article

Research Article | Open Access

Volume 2011 |Article ID 368572 | 9 pages | https://doi.org/10.1155/2011/368572

Ethnobotanical Study of Tehsil Kabal, Swat District, KPK, Pakistan

Academic Editor: Andrew Wood
Received30 Jul 2011
Accepted20 Oct 2011
Published08 Dec 2011

Abstract

A total of 140 plants have been reported ethnobotanically from Tehsil Kabal, Swat District. These include the 133 plants (95%) of angiosperms, 3 (2.14%) of gymnosperms, and 2 (1.42%) each of pteridophytes and fungi. The largest family is Lamiaceae represented by 11 species followed by Rosaceae represented by 9 species. Among angiosperms 76 (55.63%) were herbs, 17 (12.78%) were shrubs, and 40 (30.07%) were trees; 127 plants (95.48%) were dicot while 6 plants (4.51%) were monocot. Most of the plants were used for more than one purpose. Generally the plants were used for medicinal, fuel, timber wood, food, and fodder for cattle purposes.

1. Introduction

Ethnobotany is a biological, economic, and cultural inter-relationship study between people and plants of an area in which they exist [1]. Ethnobotanical studies focused on contributing to plant biodiversity knowledge (taking into account that the biological diversity as well as human awareness about the uses, applications, and natural resource conservation) on one hand and take this knowledge for further social and scientific interventions on the other hand [2]. Ethnobotanical research also helps in establishment of priorities of local community to ensure that the local values are translated into rational use of resources and effective conservation of biological diversity and cultural knowledge [3]. More than 5000 plant species belonging to angiosperms are used worldwide for medicinal purposes [4]. Medicinal plant products have been used successfully for various ailments both externally and internally. Despite the increasing use of synthetic drugs, plants materials have persisted as the “treatment of choice” as they have no or less side effects [5]. The present study was conducted to explore indigenous knowledge of plants from Tehsil Kabal, Swat District, KPK, Pakistan. Tehsil Kabal, Swat District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan is located at 34°47′ North and 72°17′ East. Average elevation of the area is about 2400 to 2550 feet. The inhabitants of the area are mostly connected to farming rearing upon livestock and their products and also on the forest products. Health facilities are scarce, especially in the upper parts of the Tehsil, with only one government hospital situated in the Kabal village. Similar types of studies have also been carried out in KPK and other parts of the country by Abbasi et al. [6], Kamal et al. [7], Ali and Qaiser [8], Ibrar et al. [3], Hussain et al. [9], Bukhsh et al. [10], Qureshi et al. [11], Zabihullah et al. [12], and many others.

It is clear that no such study has been done on the plants of this remote area where residents still use plants to cure various ailments. With the advancement of communication systems and education facilities, the local communities are being exposed to modern facilities, and in most cases, traditional knowledge has been replaced with modern knowledge. The present study was tried to document the traditional knowledge of plants utilization of this area.

2. Materials and Methods

The present study was undertaken from August to September, 2010, to document the local uses of some indigenous plants of Tehsil Kabal, Swat, KPK, Pakistan. Information about local names and traditional uses of plants were obtained from local people through direct interviews. Mostly experienced and aged persons, especially elderly women were interviewed. Although interviews were made at random priority was given to the locals of upper parts of the Tehsil, due to their better knowledge of the plants and their frequent uses. Plant specimens were collected, preserved, and identified with the help of flora of Pakistan [13, 14]. Identification of plants was further confirmed through the Herbarium, Department of Botany, University of Peshawar.

3. Results and Discussion

Ethnobotany is an integral part of indigenous/local knowledge of a particular society. Different societies or communities have their own knowledge about plants and their uses [15].

In the present study a total of 140 plants were studied for ethnobotanical uses. Of these 133 (95%) plants were angiosperm, 3 (2.14%) were gymnosperms, 2 (1.42%) belonged to each of pteridophytes and fungi. Out of 133 angiosperms 76 (55.63%) were herbs 17 (12.78%) were shrubs and 40 (30.07%) were trees. The number of monocot and dicots plants were 127 (95.48%) and 6 (4.51%), respectively. Most of the plants were used for multiple purposes. Local generally used these plants for medicinal values, fuel, timber wood, foods and fodder for cattle. Out of these, 91 plants were used for medicinal purposes. The ethnobotanical information obtained are given in Table 1.


S/no.Botanical nameLocal nameFamilyHabitEthnobotanical uses

(1)Agaricus campestris L.KharerhayAgaricaceaeMushroomCooked as food.
(2)Adiantum capillus-veneris L.SumbalAdiantaceaeHerbLeaf decoction, used for cough and fever.
(3)Ajuga bracteosa Wall.ex Benth.ButeyLamiaceaeHerb The plant is used to relive abdominal pain. Also used to cure pimples and itch. In the past the plant was used to treat chicken pox. Some locals also used it for jaundice.
(4)Ajuga parviflora BenthButeyLamiaceaeHerbUsed in hepatitis, fever, treating tonsillitis, and other throat problems.
(5)Avena sativa L.JamdarayPoaceaeHerbSpikes are used as nerve tonic, laxative, and antiseptic. The plant is also used as fodder.
(6)Atropa acuminate Royle.Bhange DewanaSolanaceaeHerbUsed as sedative.
(7)Artemisia scoparaia. Waldst & KitamJawkayAsteraceaeHerbYoung shoots are used as antihelminthic agent in human and livestock also used for diarrhea. Mature shoots are used for making brooms and also used as thatching material. The plant is also used as fuel.
(8)Artemisia absinthium L.Dhada TarkhaAsteraceaeHerbShoots are used for typhoid. Also used for conceiving pregnancy.
(9)Alnus nitida (Spach) Endl.GherayBetulaceaeTreeWood is used in timber and making furniture. Dry leaves are used as fodder for cattle.
(10)Alisma plantago—aquatica L.JabaiAlismataceaeHerbLeaves are used as tonic, treating diabetes, dysentery, digestive, and renal problems. Also used for treatment of leprosy.
(11)Alianthus altissima L.Spena BakyanraSimaroubaceaeTreeLeaves are used as fodder; wood is used for fuel and for timber.
(12)Achyranthes aspera L.Spay botayAmaranthaceaeHerbLeaves are used as blood purifier.
(13)Acorus calamus L.SkhawajaAraceaeHerbRhizome used for stomach inflammation constipation and other digestive problems. Also used for asthma.
(14)Accacia nilotica (L.) Delile.KikarMimosaceaeTreeGum is used as antihelmentic agent, while flower along with sugar is used for cough.
(15)Acacia modesta Wall.PalosaMimosaceaeTreeGum is used for impotency and as tonic. Wood is used for fuel.
(16)Amaranthus viridis L.GanharAmaranthaceaeHerbLeaves are cooked as vegetable. Young plants are also used as fodder. Dry plants are used as fuel.
(17)Aesculus indica (Wall. ex Camb.) Hook.f.JawazSapindaceaeTreeFruit is used in abdominal pain. Leaves are used as fodder for cattle. Wood is used for furniture, as timber, and fuel wood.
(18)Buxus wallichiana BaillonShamshadBuxaceaeLeaves are used as purgative.
(19)Berberis lyceum Royle.KwarayBerberidaceaeShurbRoot bark is used for treatment of hepatitis, blood purifier, in throat infection, and in asthma. The plant is also used as fuel.
(20)Cuscuta reflexa Roxb.Paprha (Zelai)CuscutaceaeHerbStem is used for fever and skin itching, also used as antifertility agent.
(21)Cupressus sempervirence L.SarwaCupressaceaeTreeThe fruit is used as warming agent, anthelmintic, and astringent. Cultivated in gardens as ornamental tree. Wood is used as fuel.
(22)Cotoneaster nummularia Fiseh & Mey.KharawaRosaceaeTreeFruit is used as astringent and expectorant. Wood is used as fuel. Leaves are used as fodder for cattle.
(23)Cotoneaster microphyllus Wall. Ex Lindley.MamanrhaRosaceaeTreeFruit is edible. Stolons are used as haemostatic. Wood used as fuel.
(24)Chenopodium ambrosioides L.Skhabotay (Kamasal Bhang)ChenoppdiaceaeHerbJuice of shoot is used for fever, especially for malarial fever.
(25)Chenopodium album L.SarmayChenoppdiaceaeHerbLeaves and young shoots are cooked as vegetable.
(26)Celtis australis.TaghaUlmaceaeTreeFruit is edible. Wood is used in furniture, for timber and as fuel.
(27)Cichorium intybus Linn.HanAsteraceaeHerbLeaves are used as anti-inflammatory and for hepatic complaints.
(28)Cedrela serrata Royle.ShnaiMeliaceaeTreeLeaves are used for digestive problems, as fodder for cattle. Wood is used as fuel.
(29)Carthamus oxycantha M. Bieb.AzghibotayAsteraceaeHerbLeaves are used as antiseptic. Seed are used for skin itching.
(30)Caralluma tuberculata N.E. Brown.PamankayAsclepiadaceaeHerbCooked as vegetable. Juice is used for diabetes.
(31)Capsella bursa—pastoris. (L.) Medic.BambessaBrasssicaceaeHerbThe leaves and flowering tops are cooked as vegetables and also used as fodder for cattle. The plant is also used as salad.
(32)Cannabis sativa Linn.BhangCannabinaceaeHerbJuice of leaves is used for treating malaria and to relieve pain. Leaves are used for male impotency. Also used for flatulence and colic pain. Female plant is used in making hashish (chars).
(33)Cana indica Linn.Tasfa BotayCannaceaeShurbCultivated as ornamental and also used for making hedges.
(34)Calotropis procera (Wild) R. Brown.SpalmaiAsclepiadaceaeHerbPaste of leaves in oil is used as pain killer, to cure skin itch, and scabies. The root bark is used for the treatment of cholera and constipation.
(35)Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.KabalPoaceaeHerbGrown in lawns, as fodder for grazing cattle. Crushed shoots are used as haemostatic.
(36)Duchesnea indica (Andr) Folke.Da Zmake thooth.RosaceaeHerbFruit is used as tonic, especially, as cooling agent. Fruit juice is used for eye infections.
(37)Dodonea viscosa (L.) Jacq.GhwarhaskaySapindaceaeShrubAsh is used to treat burns and skin infections. Water extracts of leaves is used as antihelmentic. Plant is used as thatching material in building of houses. The plant is a good source of fuel for the locals.
(38)Diospyrus kaki L.Sur AmlokEbenaceaeTreeFruit is edible and also a source of income for the locals, sold locally and in other parts of the country. Leaves are used as fodder for cattle. Wood is used as fuel.
(39)Diospyrus lotus L.Tor AmlokEbenaceaeTreeFruit is edible and also used in diarrhea. Leaves are used as fodder for goat and sheep. Wood is used as fuel.
(40)Debregeasia saeneb F.IjrhraiUrticaceaeTreeWood is used as fuel.
(41)Delphinium roylei Munz.RanunculaceaeHerbSeeds are used as insecticide.
(42)Daphne macronata Royle.LighonayThymeleaceaeShrubLeaves are used as purgative. Shoots are used as fuel.
(43)Euphorbia heliscopia Linn.MandanrhoEuphorbiaceaeHerbSeed are purgative. Latex is used for skin diseases and to extract spine from skin.
(44)Euphorbia hirta Linn.JaghjeEuphorbiaceaeHerbSeeds are used as tonic and for the treatment of diarrhea.
(45)Eugenia jamblana Lam.JamanMyrtaceaeTreeFruit is edible and used for liver problems. Bark is used as mouth wash, seed are used for diabetes, leaves are used in dysentery.
(46)Equisitum arvense L.BandakayEquisetaceaeHerbUsed for inflammation of urinary bladder and other urine problems.
(47)Eupharsia malaica WettsGhutyalayScrophulariaceaeHerbCooked as vegetable.
(48)Fummaria indica (Hausskn) PugslKrachay (Paprha)FumariaceaeHerbUsed as blood purifier, for pimples, and inflammation of heals and palms.
(49)Galium aparine L.RubiaceaeClimberWhole plant is used as diuretic, for urinary tract problems, and in fever.
(50)Gymnosporia royleana (Wall) Lawson.Sur AzghayCelastraceaeShrubSeed are used for male impotency.
(51)Ficus palmata Forssk.InzarMoraceaeTreeFruit is edible, eaten fresh as well as dried. The tree is believed sacred and, therefore, the people avoid using it as fuel. Latex is used to extract spine from skin.
(52)Foeniculum vulgare Mill.KagaApiaceaeHerbFruit is used as carminative, used to control vomiting, and as flavoring agent.
(53)Allium sativum L.OgakaiAlliaceaeHerbEaten uncooked. Used as spice. Grinded and mixed with maize floor to prepare spicy bread.
(54)Heracleum candicans Wall.ex DC.SkhwaraApiaceaeHerbUsed for cough and throat infections.
(55)Iris germanica L.IridaceaeHerbRoots are used elevate body pain. Cultivated on graves.
(56)Ipomoea purpurea (Linn.) Roth.PrewataConvolvulaceaeHerbOrnamental.
(57)Ipomoea hederacea (L.) Jacq.Speaker GulConvolvulaceaeHerbOrnamental.
(58)Indigofera gerardiana Wall. ex BakerGhawarejaPapilionaceaeShrubLeaves are used for colic pain. Woods is used as fuel. Shoots are used for making baskets and other similar articles.
(59)Juglan regia Linn.GhuzJuglandaceaeTreeFruit is edible and consumed as dry fruit. Peel of bark and roots, locally called Dandasa is used for cleaning teeth and to colour lips. Wood is used for furniture and as a timber.
(60)Justicia adhatoda L.BaikarhAcanthaceaeShrubLeaves are used for cough and cold.
(61)Lycopus europaeus Linn.LamiaceaeThe leaves are used as antiseptics.
(62)Myrtus communis L.Asta Ghonay (Manrho)MyrtaceaeShrubFruits are edible. Leaves are used in colic and in diarrhea.
(63)Myrsine africana Linn.MyrsinaceaeShrubLeaves are used as blood purifier. Fruit is used as antihelmintic, for colic pain. Shoots are used for making hedges.
(64)Monotheca buxifolia (Falc) A.DC.GwargurahSapotaceaeShrubFruit is edible. Plant is also used as fuel.
(65)Morus lavaegata Wallich. Ex Brandis.Shahthooth.MoraceaeTreeFruit is edible. Leaves are used as fodder for cattle.
(66)Morus alba L.Spen ThoothMoraceaeTreeFruit is edible. Leaves are used as fodder for cattle. Wood is used for making furniture, for timber, for making agriculture tools and as a fuel.
(67)Morus nigra L.Tor thoothMoraceaeTreeFruit is edible. Wood is used in making furniture, for timber, for making agriculture tools, and as a fuel. Leaves are used as fodder for cattle.
(68)Mirabilis jalapa Linn.Gule BadiNyctaginaceaeShrubLeaves are used to treat abscess. Root tubers are used as pain killer and also for treatment of typhoid.
(69)Micromeria biflora Benth.ShamakayLamiaceaeHerbLeaves used as antiemotic. Also used in flu.
(70)Mentha longifolia (Linn) Huds.VenalayLamiaceaeHerbLeaves are used to reduce gastric acidity, used as antispasmodic, carminative, and to relieve abdominal pain. Leaves are widely used to flavour local food named Gungrhi.
(71)Mentha arvensis L.PhodenaLamiaceaeHerbLeaves are used to reduce gastric acidity and also used as antispasmodic, carminative, and to relieve abdominal pain. Also used to make Chanti and as flavouring agent in a variety of food items.
(72)Melia azedarach L.Tora BekanrhaMeliaceaeTreeLeaves are used as antiseptic and antibiotic. Water extracts of leaves is used as antilice and antidandruff agent. Wood is used for making furniture and also for burning and for timber purposes.
(73)Matricaria chamomilla Auct.AsteraceaeHerbFlowers are used as carminative, in digestive disorders, and for colic pain.
(74)Malva sylvestris L.ShonchalMalvaceaeHerbCooked as vegetable.
(75)Morchella esculenta Fr.GojayMorchellaceaeMushroomUsed as food. Very expensive, sold to earn. Mainly exported in dry form.
(76)Nerum oleander L.GhanderayApocynaceaeShrubPlant is usually cultivated for ornamental purposes, leaf aqueous extract is used for skin itching.
(77)Nasturtium officinale R. Br.TalmeraBrassicaceaeHerbCooked as vegetable. Cooked herb is used in tetanus.
(78)Narcissus poeticus L.Gule NargasAmaryllidaceaeHerbFlowers are used for ornamental purposes. Grown on graves.
(79)Oxalis corniculata L.Nainzakai TarokaiOxalidaceaeHerbEaten fresh and used as spice. Used to remove rust from metallic articles.
(80)Onosma hispidum Wall.Abai AbaiBoraginaceaeHerbRoot is used as purgative.
(81)Olea ferrginea Royle.KhonaOleaceaeTreeOlive oil is use externally as antiseptic and anodyne. Leaves are used in diabetes. Wood is used as fuel and for furniture. Usually cultivated in graveyards. Has become endangered species.
(82)Ocimum basilicum L.KashmalayLamiaceaeHerbLeaves are used in cough and flu. Seed are added to cold drinks. Also grown as ornament.
(83)Pyrus communis L.NashpataiRosaceaeTreeFood is edible. Fruit is source of income, sold locally and in other parts of the country. Wood is used as fuel.
(84)Pyrus pashia Buch-ham ex. Don.BatangiRosaceaeTreeFruit is edible. Wood is used as fuel.
(85)Punica granatum L.Anangori.PunicaceaeTreeFruit is edible. Ash of fruit rind is used in hepatitis, digestive problems, and urinary problems.
(86)Populus nigra L.SperdarSalicaceaeTreeWood is very useful and used in making furniture, used in timber. Branches are used as fuel wood. Leaves as fodder.
(87)Portulaca oleracea L.Zangali WarkhrhayPortulacaceaeHerbCooked as vegetables. Also used as demulcent.
(88)Portulaca quadrifida L.Zangali WarkhrhayPortulacaceaeHerbCooked as vegetable.
(89)Polygonum aviculare L.BandakayPolygonaceaeHerbCooked as vegetable.
(90)Platanus orientalis L.ChinarPlatanaceaeTreeLeaves are used in dysentery. Wood is used for making furniture, timber, and also as fuel. Dry leaves are also used as fuel.
(91)Plantago lanceolata L.JabaiPlantaginaceae.HerbLeaves are used for treatment of dysentery and diarrhea. Also used as wound dressing and antiseptic.
(92)Plantago major L.JabaiPlantaginaceaeHerbLeaves are used as tonic and antiseptic, Also used for fever.
(93)Pinus roxburghii Sargent.NakhtarPinaceaeTreeResin is used as antihelminitic agent. Wood is used as fuel and timber. Dried leaves locally called Barwaza are used to spread below mates in mosques. Dried leaves are also used as packing material for local fruits (apple, apricot, peach, and pyrus)
(94)Periploca aphylla Decne.BarrhaAsclepiadaceaeShrubStem is used as laxative. Milky juice of shoot is used in fever.
(95)Papaver pavoninum Schrenk.Sur gulayPapveraceaeHerbFlowers are used as sedative.
(96)Quercus incana Roxb.Spin BanjFabaceaeTreeFruits are used for controlling excessive urination and kidney problems, also used for inflammations. Wood is used as fuel.
(97)Quercus dilatata Lindl. Ex Royle.Tor BanjFabaceaeTreeFruit is used for digestive problems and asthma. Wood is used as fuel.
(98)Rumex hastatus D.Don.TarokayPolygonaceaeHerbLeaves used as carminative, diuretic, and used in jaundice. Leaves are cooked as vegetable and also eaten uncooked.
(99)Rumex dentatus. L.ShalkhayPolygonaceaeHerbCooked as vegetables. Also used to treat constipation in cattle.
(100)Rubus fruticosus Agg.KarwarhaRosaceaeShrubFruit is edible. Plants are used for making hedges.
(101)Rosa webbiana Wallich ex RoyleZangali GulabRosaceaeShrubUsed for making hedges and as ornament.
(102)Rubus ellipticus Smith.PulwarhiRosaceaeShrubFruit is edible and is useful for removal of kidney stone. Plants are grown for making hedges.
(103)Salix acmophylla L.Walla.SalicaceaeTreeLeaves are used externally to relieve pain. Wood is used for furniture, timber, and as fuel.
(104)Robinia pseduacacia L.KikarPapilionaceaeTreeWood is used as fuel. Honey bee plant. Cultivated as road-side shade plant.
(105)Ricinus communis L.ArhandaEuphorbiaceaeTreeSeed oil is used as laxative, applied to swellings and to treat constipation. Local Hakeems use it as antidote for arsenic poisoning. Seeds are use for cough, fever, and headache.
(106)Rabdosia rugosa (Wallich ex. Benth) Hara.SpaerkayLamiaceaeHerbLeaves are used in colic. Leaf extract is also used as vermicide and insecticide.
Ranunculus muricatus L.Ziar GulayRanunculaceaeHerbUsed for treatment of schiatic pain.
(107)Salvia moorcroftianaWall. ex Benth.Khar KwagLamiaceaeHerbLeaves are used commonly to relive pain.
(108)Stelaria media (L.) Vill.OlalaiCarophyllaceaeHerbPlant is cooked as vegetable, also used for constipation.
(109)Sonchus oleraceous L.ShawdapaiAsteraceaeHerbUsed as fodder for cattle, believed to enhance milk production.
(110)Sonchus asper L.ShawdapaiAsteraceaeHerbUsed as fodder for cattle.
(111)Solanum surattense Burm.f.MarhaghonaySolanaceaeHerbSeed along with mustard oil is used for treatment of migraine. Ash of plant is used as tonic and pain killer.
(112)Solanum nigrum Auct.Kach MachuSolanaceaeHerbFruit is used for inflammation and liver problems.
(113)Silene conidia L.MangoteyCaryophyllaceaeHerbUsed as vegetables (SAAG).
(114)Sorghum halepense Pers.DadamPoaceaeHerbMature plants are used as fodder for cattle.
(115)Sarcococca saligna (D.Don) Muell. Arg.LadanrhBusaceaeShrubPlant is used for digestive disorders.
(116)Solanum dulcamara L.KachmachoSolanaceaeHerbFruit is used for inflammation and liver problems.
(117)Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn.WorajakaiAsteraceaeHerbFlower is used for jaundice and tuberculosis.
(118)Salix babylonica L.WallaSalicaceaeTreeLeaves are used externally as warming agent to relieve pain. Wood is used for furniture and timber, also used as fuel.
(119)Sagittaria guyanensis KunthAlismataceaeHerbRhizome is used in skin diseases.
(120)Typha angustata Bory & Chaub.LukhaTyphaceaeHerbPlant is used as thatching material. Leaves are used as fodder.
(121)Trifolium repens L.ShautalPapilionaceaeHerbUsed as fodder for cattle. The seeds are used for treatment of pimples.
(122)Tribulus terrestris L.MarkundaiZygophyllaceaeHerbSeed are used as general tonic, used in urinary disorders and impotency.
(123)Trachyspermum ammi L.SpairkaiApiaceaeHerbFruit is used as carminative, digestive, and in colic pain.
(124)Thymus linearis Benth.Da Payo ShamakayLamiaceaeHerbLeaves are used in cough, flu,and fever. Seeds are added to milk to preserve it for longer duration.
(125)Thuja orientalis L.Warha SarwaCupressaceaeShrubOrnamental.
(126)Taraxacum officinale Webber.Ziarh GulayAsteraceaeHerbRoots are used in diabetes and for kidney problems.
(127)Tagetes minuta L.HameshaAsteraceaeHerbOrnamental.
(128)Urtica dioica Linn.SezonkayUrticaceaeHerbWhole plant is used as diuretic, also used in jaundice.
(129)Verbascum Thapsus L.KhardagScrophulariaceaeHerbLeaves are used externally to relieve pain.
(130)Voila Canescens Wall.BanafshaViolaceaeHerbLeaves are used in fevers, flu, and as expectorant.
(131)Voila biflora L.BanafshaViolaceaeHerbLeaves are used in fevers, flu, and as expectorant.
(132)Vitex negundo L.MarvandaiLamiaceaeShrubLeaves are used in digestive problems. Wood is used as fuel wod.
(133)Withania somnifera (L.) DunalKoti LalSolanaceaeHerbRoots bark along with sugar is used as tonic, galactagogue. Also used to relieve back ache.
(134)Xanthium stramarium. Linn.JishkayAsteraceaeWoody herbLeaves are used for treatment of asthma. Stem ash is used as pain killer. The plant is also used as fuel. Leaves are grazed by cattle.
(135)Zizyphus mauritiana Lam.Mada BeraRhamnaceaeTreeFruit is edible. Wood is used as fuel.
(136)Zizyphus sativa GaertnMarkhanryRhamnaceaeTreeFruit is edible. Leaves and fruit are believed as antibiotic and antidiabetic. Wood is used as fuel wood. Leaves are grazed by cattle.
(137)Zizyhus oxyphyla EdgewElanaiRhamnaceaeTreeFruit is edible. Leaves and fruit are believed to be antibiotic and antidiabetic. Wood is used as fuel. Root extract is used for hepatitis. Fruit is also used as heart tonic.
(138)Zanthoxylum armatum DC.DambaraRutaceaeShrubFruit is used for treating stomach disorders and also as spices.

In the lower part of the Tehsil Kabal the medical facilities like government hospital, private clinics, and pharmacies are easily accessible so the use of plants for medicinal purposes is not a common feature, and they mainly use herbal drugs for colic pains and digestive problems. But the people living in the upper part of the Tehsil, especially the Qalagai, Manrhai, and Surbala villages where hospitals and other health facilities are not easily available to people, use herbal drugs quite frequently. In the present study, 93 (66.4%) plants including Artemisia absinthium, Atropa acuminate, Ajuga parviflora, Ajuga bracteosa, Acorus calamus, Acacia modesta, Berberis lyceum, Cichorium intybus, Caralluma tuberculata, Canabis sativa, Calotropis procera, Mirabilis jalapa, Micromeria biflora, Plantago major, and Ricinus communis are used by locals for medicinal purposes. The medicinal values of most of these plants are also reported by Razaq et al. [16], Ibrar et al. [3], Hamayun et al. [17], Manan et al. [18], and Jan et al. [19] from other parts of the country.

Majority of the people of the area are farmers and they also keep cattle, like buffalos, cows, goat, and sheep, and so forth, in homes. Milk and other dairy products are the source of food and income for most of the people living in the upper parts of the study area. To feed the cattle the local also cultivate various fodder crops. Besides these there are numerous wild plants and trees which are used as fodder for cattle. In the present study the plants that were used as fodder count 35 (25%) which include Avena sativa, Amaranthus viridis, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Cyanodon dactylon, Sonchus asper, Trifolium repens, Sorghum halepense, Melia azedarach, Sonchus oleraceous, Morus alba, Morus nigra, and others.

The folks, especially those living in the upper parts of the area, live a simple life. They use mainly dairy products and plants (vegetables) for food. The plants that are eaten cooked or uncooked by locals include Silene conidia, Amaranthus viridis, Chenopodium album, Caralluma tuberculata, Allium sativum, Malva sylvestris, Nasturtium officinale, Stelaria media, and others.

Most plants, especially trees, are cultivated in the area mainly for fuel wood. Many wild plants are used as fuel. One reason for this is that most of the people of the area are economically not strong and cannot afford LPG as fuel, which is the major alternative for the fuel wood. Plants like Alnus nitida, Artemisia scoparaia, Accacia nilotica, Acacia modesta, Celtis australis, Dodonea viscosa, Melia azedarach, and Alianthus altissima are used as fuel wood by locals. The information gathered in the present study is in line with the works of Ibrar et al. [3], Zabihullah et al. [12], and Khan et al. [20].

The use of plants is an important part in construction of local mud houses and also in making furniture. Alnus nitida, Alianthus altissima, Juglan regia, Morus nigra, Morus alba, Melia azedarach, and others are locally used as timber and for making furniture. Plants like Artemisia scoparaia and Dodonea viscosa are used as thatching material in construction of muddy houses.

The preset study reveals that the investigated area is under great biotic pressure in the form of deforestation and overgrazing. Woody plants have been damaged due to poor management. There is a dire need to conserve the resources of the area for sustainable use by the locals. The area has a rich potential for wildlife and medicinal plants, and as rangeland, but ecological management including protection is required so that future generation are made happy with natural resources.

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Copyright © 2011 Imtiaz Ahmad et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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