Journal of Botany

Journal of Botany / 2017 / Article

Research Article | Open Access

Volume 2017 |Article ID 8383468 | 10 pages | https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/8383468

Study on the Diversity and Use of Wild Edible Plants in Bullen District Northwest Ethiopia

Academic Editor: Muhammad Iqbal
Received09 Jan 2017
Accepted16 Apr 2017
Published15 May 2017

Abstract

This study was designed to document the use and conservation of wild edible plants in Bullen district, northwestern Ethiopia. Data was collected through semistructured interview and focus group discussions. The collected data was analyzed through direct matrix ranking, pairwise ranking, and priority ranking methods. In this study, a total of 77 wild edible plant species were identified. Of these plants, trees account for 35.5% followed by shrubs (31.1%). Fruits were the most harvested parts (59.7%) followed by leaves (12.9%), roots and tubers (3.8%), and rhizomes (2.5%). These plants are consumed either raw (57.1%) and/or cooked (17%); most are collected by women (62.5%) and children (20.8%), but the participation of men is stumpy (4.2%). According to pairwise ranking analysis, fruits of Vitex doniana and the leaves of Portulaca quadrifida are the most preferred plant species because of their sweet taste. However, some of the plants have side effects causing abdominal pain, diarrhea, and constipation. Although religion and cultural norms and values play an important role in the conservation of wild edible plants, population pressure and its associated impacts contributed much to the disappearance of these plants. Thus, community participation is the suggested solution for the conservation and sustainable use of the wild edible plants in the study area.

1. Background and Justification

The rural communities of developing countries depend on wild edible plants to meet their food requirements during periods of food shortage. Studies conducted by [1] indicated that the wild edible plants are mostly serving as supplementary foods in different parts of Africa. Wild edible plants are nutritionally rich [2] and can supplement especially vitamins and micronutrients [3]. These show that wild edible plants are essential components of many African diets, especially in period of seasonal food shortage.

The Ethiopian flora has approximately 6000 species of higher plants of which about 10% are endemic [4, 5]. The country is known as the biodiversity hotspot and center of origin and diversification for a significant number of food plants and their wild relatives [6]. The wide range of climatic and edaphic conditions permitted the growing of a variety of wild food plants [7].

Some studies in Ethiopia indicated that many rural people are endowed with deep knowledge on how to use plant resources. This is particularly true with regard to the use of medicinal plants [8] and wild edible plants that are consumed at times of famine and other hardships [3]. In this regard, the elder community members are mostly the key sources of knowledge about plants [3].

The consumption of wild plants seems more common in food insecure areas of the country as compared to relatively food sufficient areas [9]. Thus, many rural people of Ethiopia usually feed on wild food plants for survival during food shortage [10]. Although wild edible plants play an important role during periods of food shortage, little attention has been given to conservation of wild edible plant species.

Available published studies on the ethnobotany of wild food plants are limited to specific area [11]. In northwestern Ethiopia, the consumption of wild food plants seems to be one of the important local survival strategies and appears to have intensified due to the repeated climatic shocks hampering agricultural production and leading to food shortages [2]. In Bullen district of Benshanguel-Gumez region, the noncultivated plants provide considerable amount of supplementary food and have significant contribution to generating additional income for many households. However, there has not been sufficient research carried out about the indigenous knowledge of wild edible plants in Bullen district. Therefore, this study was designed to (1) identify and document wild edible plant species, (2) identify and record the parts of wild edible plants which are edible to humans, (3) evaluate the exploitation and conservation status of wild edible plants, and (4) assess threats on the wild edible plant species and recommend the possible management scenarios for their conservation.

2. Materials and Methods

2.1. Description of Study Area

Bullen district, the study area, is located in northwestern Ethiopia lying within 10°00′ to 11°07′ N and 35°45′ and 36°07′ E (Figure 1). The altitude varies from 900 to 2300 m.a.s.l. According to the traditional agroecological zonation of Ethiopia, 85% is Kola (lowlands, warm), 10% Woina dega (mid-altitude moist, cool), and 5% Dega (highland, cool). The mean annual rainfall of the district ranges from 700 to 1000 mm. The average annual temperature ranges from 23.5 to 35.5°C. Diverse soil types exist in the areas, of which Acrisols and Nitisols that occur on the gentler slopes and Vertisols in the valley bottoms are the dominant ones [12].

2.2. Methodology
2.2.1. Reconnaissance Survey and Site Selection

A reconnaissance survey was conducted from August 10 to 25, 2010, to depict the different vegetation types, natural resource management, and indigenous knowledge associated with the use of wild edible plant species. Following the survey, focus group discussion was carried out in one of the study sites. After the discussion, five villages were systematically selected as study sites out of the total 15 villages of the district (Figure 1). The study villages were chosen based on proximity to the existing remnant forest resources and representativeness of the different agroecologies.

2.2.2. Ethnobotanical Data Collection

Seventy-two informants (40 males and 32 females) from different age groups were chosen from five villages of the study site based on the recommendations given from elders, Development Agents (DAs), and kebele (village) administration leaders. The ages of the informants were between 15 years and 60 years. The key informants were chosen based on traditional knowledge of wild edible plants following the suggestion made by [13]. Semistructured interviews, field observation, and focus group discussions (FGDs) were employed for data collection. Focus group discussions were employed for wild edible plants investigation to help in comparison of patterns evident among individual interviews and to reject contradictory information. Accordingly, FGDs were undertaken in groups consisting of six to eight people in five selected kebeles. Interviews were conducted in “Shinashegna, Gumuzegna, and Amharic” languages with the help of local translators.

2.2.3. Plant Specimen Collection and Identification

Based on the ethnobotanical information obtained from informants, specimens with their vernacular names were collected, numbered, pressed, and dried for identification. Preliminary identification was done in the field based on published guides of useful trees and shrubs of Ethiopia [4]. The identification was done mainly based on the works of [4, 1416]. All voucher specimens of the wild edible plants labeled with scientific and vernacular names were stored in Biology department herbarium, Bahir Dar University.

2.3. Data Analysis

Descriptive statistics that are percentage and frequency were used to analyze the ethnobotanical data of the reported wild edible plants and their associated indigenous knowledge. Preference ranking was computed to assess the degree of preference of wild edible fruit and leafy vegetables based on taste, edibility quality, and importance of species at different seasons. Priority ranking was employed to determine threats of wild edible plants based on their level of destructive effects. To recognize threats of wild edible plant species, values from 1–5 were given: 1 is the least destructive threat and 5 is the most destructive threat. Use diversity ranking was carried out to identify the multipurpose use of wild edible plants which were commonly reported by the key informants.

3. Results and Discussions

3.1. Indigenous Knowledge (IK) Transfer and Practice

Out of the 72 respondents, 70 (93.5%) reported that their knowledge of wild food plants was acquired through observation, imitation, and oral history, while 2 (26.5%) reported that they acquired knowledge secretly from elders, when they became very old. Moreover, the respondents reported that the knowledge of wild food plants was transferred through songs, folklore, and riddles in local languages at different times especially when the people are at rest especially during the night time.

3.2. Taxonomic Diversity

A total of 77 wild edible plant species belonging to 61 genera and 39 families were recorded in the study area (Table 1). The relative high number of wild edible plants in the study area may be due to the more intensive utilization of plants by the local communities and diverse agroecology. Of the reported 39 families, Tiliaceae, Euphorbiaceae, and Moraceae had the highest number of species (5, 4, and 4), respectively. But the remaining families were represented by 1 to 3 species. The reported plant species were comparable with those reported elsewhere in Ethiopia [5, 7, 17].


FamilyScientific namesLocal nameHabitPart usedPreparation and mode of consumptionHabitatCo. No

AcanthaceaeAcanthus sennii ChioveKoshosha (SH)HFlower nectarJuice of flower nectars is sipped by lipWL, FLTB 069
Justica ladanoides Lam.Kakim (GU)HLeavesFlesh leaves are boiled and eatenRV ELTB 046
Justicia schimperiana Hochst. ex NeesDumuga (SH)SFlower nectarJuice of nectars is sipped by lipFETB 014
AmaranthaceaeAmaranthus caudata L.Darka (GU)HLeaves & young shootYoung leaves and shoots of plants are eaten after being cooked with Phaseolus vulgaris L.HG, RSTB 034
Amaranthus cruentus ThellLama (SH)HLeaves & seedLeaves are eaten cooked and the seed is grinded and eaten when it is changed to porridgeHG, WLTB 063
Amaranthus hybridus L.Dahka (GU)HLeavesLeaves are eaten boiledHG, RSTB 031
AnacardiaceaeRhus retinorrhoea Oliv.Kefijanga (SH)TFruitFruit is eaten rawWLTB 009
Rhus vulgaris MeikleBakitela (SH)SFruitFruit is eaten rawRV, WLTB 015
Rhus ruspolii Engle.Qamo (SH)TFruitFruit is soaked with straw until it is ripe and eaten rawWLTB 002
AnnonaceaeAnnona cherimola MillGishita (SH)TFruitFruit is eaten rawWL, FETB 060
Annona senegalensis Pers.Bambuta (SH)TFruitFruit is eaten rawWLTB 043
ApocynaceaeCarissa spinarum (Forssk) Vahil.Soha (GU)SFruitFruit is eaten raw and as juiceWL, RVTB 068
Saba comorensis (Boji.) PichenFuya (SH)CFruitFruit is eaten rawRVTB 050
ApiaceaeAnethum graveolens (Mill)Lubicha (GU)HLeavesLeaves are eaten raw or after being cooked with Cucurbita pepoRS, RVTB 045
Foeniculum vulgare (Mill)Qushuwa (SH)HLeavesLeaves are squeezed with Allium sativum L. and used as condimentHGTB 037
AsteraceaeVernonia amygdalina DelBanjaga (GU)HLeavesLeaves are eaten either raw or cookedWL DRTB 070
Bidens pilosa L.Tsetsega (SH)HLeavesLeaves are eaten after being boiledRSTB 057
AraceaeColocosa esculanta (Hochst)Kompha (SH)HTubersThe tuber is cut off, dried for one day, and eaten after being properly boiledRV, HGTB 004
ArecaceaeBorassus aethiopum Mart.Goha (SH)TFruit &young seedlingGerminating parts are eaten after being boiled and the fruit is eaten raw after soaking with straw for a monthWLTB 038
Phoenix reclinata JacqWola (SH)SFruit and stemExternal surface of the young stem is removed by sharp materials and boiled for two days until toxic substances are removed and then after staying for 30 minutes before eating. Fruit is eaten raw or after soaking with straw until it is ripenedFM, WLTB 003
BalanitaceaeBalanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del.Qota (SH)TFruitFleshy exocarp of the fruit is removed first and then the stony mesocarp is broken and the endocarp fruit is roasted and is eaten after getting immersed with alcohol for sexual excitement and to neutralize the alcoholic effectsWLTB 071
BoraginaceaeCordia africana Lam.Banja (SH)TFruitThe fruit is eaten rawWL, FMTB 051
CelastraceaeMaytenus senegalensis (Lam.) Excell.Tisha (GU)SFruitThe fruit is eaten rawWLTB 012
Salacia congolensis (Wild.)Tsera (SH)SStem barkThe internal part of stem bark is removed carefully ground and the extracted juice is used as sauceWLTB 036
CommelinaceaeCommelina africana L.Echaya (GU)TleavesLeaves are eaten after cookingWLTB 047
CucurbitaceaeCucurbita pepo L.Maximara (SH)CLeavesYoung leaves are eaten after cookingHGTB 053
Gladiolus candies (Rendle)Engula (SH)CYoung shootYoung shoots are eaten after cookingRVTB 001
Momordica foetida Schumach.Badha (SH)CLeaves and fruitYoung leaves are eaten after cooking and the fruit endocarp is eaten rawRVTB 028
DioscoreaceaeDioscorea cayenensis Lam.Egera (GU)CTubers/rootThe poisonous parts of tubers are removed and the remaining parts are eaten after cookingWL, RVTB 010
Dioscorea prehensilis BenthAnga (GU)CRoot/tubersBoiled tuber is eatenWLTB 040
EbenaceaeDiospyros mespiliformis HoechstMaranta (SH)TFruitFruit is eaten rawRV, FLTB 072
ErythroxylaceaeErythroxylon fischeri EngleTiriga (GU)HLeavesThe leaves are eaten rawHGTB 030
EuphorbiaceaeBridelia micrantha HoechstYejega (GU)TFruitThe fruit is eaten rawWL, FLTB 062
Croton macrostachyus Del.Shekeshek (SH)TLeavesYoung cooked shoots eatenWLTB 076
Bridelia scleroneura Muell.Arg.Ajega (GU)TFruitThe fruit is eaten rawWL, FLTB 044
Sepium ellipticum L.Andirgago (SH)SFruitThe fruit is eaten rawRCTB 065
Clutia lanceolata HoechstDoguha (SH)SFruitThe fruit is eaten rawWLTB 067
FabaceaeSenna obtusifolia (L.) Irwan & BarnebyBamdisa (GU)HSeedEndocarp is eaten rawHG, RSTB 011
Piliostigma thonningii (Schum.) Milne-RedhMac’a (SH)TFruitFruit is eaten rawWLTB 033
Tamarindus indica L.Dogha (SH)TFruitFleshy exocarp is eaten rawWLTB 008
FlacourtiaceaeOncoba spinosa Forssk.Ula (SH)SFruitFleshy endocarp is eaten rawWLTB 059
LoganiaceaeStrychnos innocua Del.Oola (SH)TFruitThe fruit is eaten rawWL, DRTB 035
Strychnos spinosa L.Merenza (GU)TFruitThe fruit is eaten rawWLTB 047
MalvaceaeAbelmoschus esculentus (L.)Andeha (GU)HFruitThe fruit is eaten rawHGTB 024
Abelmoschus ficulneus (L.) MonchAndha yiza (SH)HFruitThe fruit is eaten rawHg, FMTB 058
Hibiscus cannabinus L.Tisha (GU)HLeavesLeaves are burned until they form ash and are used as saltHG, FLTB 032
MoraceaeFicus vasta ForsskBowa (GU)TFruitThe fruit is eaten rawRV, FTB 021
Ficus sur ForsskEssa (SH)TFruitThe fruit is eaten rawRVTB 013
Ficus sycomorus L.Fuqa (GU)TFruitThe fruit is eaten rawWL, FLTB 067
Moras alba L.Injor (SH)SFruitThe fruit is eaten rawFETB 019
MoringaceaeMoringa stenopetala LamSheferwu (SH)SY, LCooked young leaves, eaten with Phaseolus vulgaris L. and riceHGTB 016
MusaceaeEnsete Ventricosum (Wild)Echecha (SH)TFruitThe fruit is eaten rawRV, HGTB 066
Eugenia uniflora L.Badirbonga (SH)SFruitThe fruit is eaten rawWLTB 064
MyrtaceaeSyzygium guineense (Wild.) Dc. sp. guineenseDaguwa (GU)TFruitThe fruit is eaten raw or drunk in juice formRVTB 061
Syzygium guineense (Wild.) Dc. ssp. macrocarpumDiwa (SH)TFruitThe fruit is eaten rawWL, FLTB 018
PoaceaeOxytenanthera abyssinica (A. Rich.) MunroSoha (GU)HYseThe young seedling boiled and eaten with breadWL, HGTB 007
PolygonaceaeRumex abyssinicus JacqAmbata (SH)HRootRoot grinded by mortar and the squeezed part used as food decoctionHGTB 073
OlacaceaeXimenia americana L.Meyo (GU)TFruitThe fruit is eaten rawWL, FLTB 017
PortulacaceaePortulaca quadrifida L.Kiwa (SH)HLeavesThe shoot part is ground together with Allium sativum, Foeniculum vulgare, and Ruta chalepensis toform sauce and eaten with porridge and injeria (local bread)HG, FLTB 006
SapotaceaeMimusops kummel A.DC.Shemiya (SH)TFruitThe fruit is eaten as rawWL, FLTB 040
SolanaceaeLycopersicon esculentum MillKomidira (SH)HFruitThe fruit is eaten rawRTB 048
Physalis peruviana L.Bosiya (SH)HFruitThe fruit is eaten rawRs, DATB 023
Solanum nigrum L.Func’a (SH)HFruit and leavesThe fruit is eaten raw and the leaves are eaten raw together with green pepperHG, RSTB 054
RhamnaceaeZiziphus abyssinica HoechstAnguga (GU)TFruitThe fruit is eaten rawWLTB 055
Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) WildSirah (Gu)TFruitThe fruit is eaten rawWLTB 049
SapindaceaeLepisanthes senegalensis PersBekuda (SH)SFruitThe fruit is eaten rawWlTB 052
RubiaceaeGardenia ternifolia Schummach &Thonn.Gaaba (GU)TFruitThe fruit is eaten rawWL, FLTB 016
Pavetta crassipes (K.Schum)Munqa (SH)SFruitThe fruit is eaten rawWL, FLTB 020
Vangueria apiculata L.Hawa (SH)SFruitThe fruit is eaten rawFMTB 056
TiliaceaeGrewia bicolor JussSomoya (SH)SFruitThe fruit is eaten rawFE.FLTB 074
Grewia ferruginea Hochst. ex A.RichGalqoriya (Sh)SFruitThe fruit is eaten rawWLTB 039
Grewia mollis JussQoriya (GU)SStem barkThe inner parts of stem bark are safely removed and soaked with hot water and grinded and collecting juice used as sauceWL, FLTB 025
Grewia schweinfurthii Burret.Badiriya (GU)SLeavesThe fruit eaten rawRV.FLTB 077
Corchorus olitorius L.Laliaq (SH)HLeavesYoung leaves eaten raw or after being cookedFL, DRTB 027
VerbenaceaeVitex doniana SweetKokor (SH)TFruitThe fruit is eatenWLTB 005
UlmaceaeCeltis africana Brum.f.Qawo (GU)TFruitThe fruit is eaten rawDRTB 07
ZingiberaceaeEtlingera littoralis L.Zingibila (GU)HTuberThe fruit is eaten rawRVTB 026

3.3. Growth Forms, Parts Used, and Mode of Consumption/Preparation

The largest numbers of edible wild plant species were found to be trees, followed by herbs, shrubs, and climbers (Figure 2). This result also concurs with the works of [17, 18]. Regarding parts used, a total of 6 edible parts were recorded. Of these, 63.6% were fruits, 20.8% leaves, and 6.5% roots and tubers, while the remaining 9.1% were flowers, nectar, stem barks, and seeds (Figure 3). This implies that more than one part of a plant species was consumed by humans. The result concurs with [19]. As regards the mode of consumption, 57.1% are consumed raw, 16.9% boiled, 6.5% in juice form, 9.1% either raw or boiled, and 5.2% as porridge/sauce (Figure 4).

3.4. Preference of Edibility of Parts

In the study area preference of wild food plants parts varied. For example, plants consumed during famine were not consumed during normal periods. As informants reported, the roots of Dioscorea cayenensis Lam. and the young stem of Phoenix reclinata Jacq. are only consumed during times of food shortage. Moreover, the results of pairwise ranking in Table 2 indicated that the fruits of Vitex dodoniaa Sweet are the most preferred wild food fruits over the other reported wild food fruits (Table 2). This is due to them being well known by all communities. Preference of wild leafy vegetables indicates that Portulaca quadrifida L. ranks first (Table 3). This is due to their easy accessibility and palatability. These results concur with [10].


Plant speciesRespondentsScoreRank
1234567

Annona senegalensis 4523452252nd
Balanites aegyptiaca3242312174th
Vitex doniana 5423554281st
Tamarindus indica 2345231203rd
Syzygium guineense 2134312165th
Ziziphus spina-christi 1121234146th
Oncoba spinosa2332211137th


Plant speciesRespondentsScoreRank
1234567

Portulaca quadrifida4144551241st
Corchorus olitorius3245124212nd
Amaranthus hybridus1111223116th
Solanum nigrum4513322203rd
Vernonia amygdalina2211132125th
Bidens pilosa2311111107th
Rumex abyssinica3423144214th

3.5. Traditional Medicinal and Other Uses of Wild Edible Plants

In the study area informants reported that of the identified plant species sixteen (20.7%) plant species including parts such as leaves, fruit, stem bark, root, and seeds were mentioned as useful to treat one or more human health problems (Table 4). The number of these plants against the specific human ailment ranged from 1% to 18.7%. Of the 16 species mentioned, the leaves and roots of Balanites aegyptiaca got priority by the local communities to relive abdominal pain. The fruit of Cordia africana is also mentioned as treatment for diarrhea; the leaves of Solanum nigrum are used to treat abdominal pain and the roots of Carissa spinarum for remedying tape worm.


Scientific nameTreated health problem symptomPart usedHabitNumber of citationsParticipants cited for use (%)

Balanites aegyptiacaAbdominal painLeaf/rootTree918.75
MalariaRoot12.08
A kind of dermal swellingRoot12.08
HypertensionRoot12.08
BichawobaRoot12.08
Bidens pilosaTanea pedisLeafHerb12.08
Amaranthus hybridusTape wormLeafHerb1225
Carissa spinarumTape wormRootShrub36.25
ConstipationFruit12.08
GonorrheaFruit36.25
Cordia africanaDiarrheaFruitTree1020.8
ConstipationFruit24.1
Abdominal acheFruit12.08
Corchorus olitoriusDiarrheaLeafHerb12.08
Grewia bicolorVenereal disease (syphilis)FruitShrub24.1
ConstipationRoot12.08
Gardenia ternifoliaLiver diseaseRootShrub12.08
Abdominal ache (coli)Root24.1
Abdominal distensionRoot12.08
Momordica foetidaBronchitisLeafclimber12.08
Ficus surRing wormSapTree12.08
Portulaca quadrifidaDiarrheaAerial partHerb48.3
Abdominal distensionAerial part12.08
Abdominal ache coliAerial part12.08
Vernonia amygdalinaAbdominal painLeafHerb24.1
Solanum nigrumAbdominal painLeafHerb36.25
MalariaLeaf12.08
Tamarindus indicaAbdominal painFruitTree12.08
Ximenia americanaAbdominal painFruitTree12.08
GastritisFruit12.08
Wound (as ointment)Fruit12.08
Ziziphus abyssinicaDiarrheaRootShrub12.08
Abdominal panRoot12.08

Note. Based on growth habit, the total number of medicinal wild edible plants in the study area: herb = 6, tree = 5, shrub = 4, and climber = 1.

Most of the plant remedies used by the people of Bullen district are obtained from herbs (37.5%) followed by trees (31.2%) (Table 4). Data analysis showed that the majority (20.7%) of medicinal plants in the wild are herbs and are used in the treatment of different kinds of diseases, in addition to their food value. This result indicates that people rely more on herbs and trees because they are relatively common in the area compared to shrub species. This finding agrees with the findings of [17, 20] in southern Wello Chefa area and Debub Omo Zone.

The most widely sought plant parts in the preparation of remedies are roots (56.2%). The popularity of these parts has grave consequences, from both ecological point of view and the survival of the wild edible species point of view [21]. On the other hand, collecting leaves alone could not pose a lasting danger to the continuity of an individual plant compared with the collection of roots, bark, stem, or whole plant.

3.6. Multipurpose Use of Wild Edible Plants

Apart from their food and medicinal values, the reported wild edible plants are used for different purposes. Direct matrix ranking was undertaken in order to evaluate multipurpose use of tree species and their relative importance to the local people and the extent of the existing threats related to their use values (Table 5). The result of use diversity indicates that Syzygium guineense are ranked 1st because they are used for different purposes such as construction, firewood, fence, and so forth in the study area. This shows that the local people harvest the wild edible plants not only for food but mostly for construction, firewood, and furniture (Table 5).


Edible plant species and rankingTotalRank
1234567891011

Edibility20212131131176th
Medicine04200301000108th
Construction/building13433433320291th
Furniture40333342000223rd
Agricultural tools00104100231127th
Fuel wood collection22312421232242nd
Fodder21143312040214th
Fencing00404333030205th
Total score11102012212216138184
Rank8927315610411

1 = Annona senegalensis, 2 = Carissa spinarum, 3 = Cordia africana, 4 =  Piliostigma thonningii, 5 = Ficus sur, 6 = Syzygium guineense, 7 = Vitex doniana, 8 = Ximenia americana, 9 = Ziziphus abyssinica, 10 = Balanites aegyptiaca, and 11 = Ziziphus spina-christi.
3.7. Threats to Wild Edible Plants

Currently some of the remnant forests with large numbers of the wild edible plants in the study area are subjected to frequent deforestation by the local community. This is attributed mainly to human population pressure and its associated effects. Agricultural land expansions, wild fire, fuel wood collection, overgrazing, and overharvesting are the main reasons for the destruction of wild edible plants. Of these factors, agricultural land expansion ranks first followed by overgrazing and fuel wood collection (Table 6).


FactorsRespondents of each villageTotalRank
A1A2A3Dm1Dm2Dm3B1B2Ch1Ch2Ab1Ab2

Agricultural land expansion434221321133291st
Uncontrolled fire setting121311321321214th
Fuel wood collection323232122112243rd
Overgrazing223142332211262nd
Overharvesting231313011201185th

A = Aygal mozanbus; Dm = Doshna Moch; B = Bardud; Ch = Chilanqo; Ab = Azemina Banosh.

The level of threats of wild edible plants varies among the different studied villages of the district. Accordingly, informants from Aygal Mozanbus and Azemna Bansh rated agricultural land expansion as the principal threat to wild edible plant species. This is mainly due to increasing demand for arable land due to increasing human population. In the Baruda village, overgrazing uncontrolled fire setting followed by agricultural land expansion is the major factor that threatens the wild edible plants’ diversity. The introduction of new grazing land due to high livestock density has possibly resulted in the overgrazing of large areas of the Baruda village. Similarly, in Doshna Moch, informants claimed fuel wood collection to be equally hazardous as overgrazing in threatening wild edible plants species. Uncontrolled fire setting was also another major threat to wild plant in Chilanqo village. It was observed that many woody species were severely affected by such fires where the tree and shrub stands decline and some are completely burned. Others are dried and collected as fire wood and the newly grown vegetative parts of woody species are further overbrowsed and trampled by overgrazing, causing considerable damage to the species. The same result was reported by [19] in Derashe and Kucha districts of southern Ethiopia, indicating that uncontrolled fire affects many woody plants including fire tolerant species when the duration of fire is too long.

3.8. Conservation of Wild Edible Plants and Associated Knowledge

Agricultural land expansion, fuel wood collection, and uncontrolled fire setting are the major threats to the conservation of wild edible plants in the study area. Despite the understanding of the local people about the importance of conserving the wild edible plants, only some in situ (in original/natural habitat) conservation methods like planting in the form of fences and protected pasture land in different worship areas (churches, mosques) and in their farm field/farm margins are being practiced in the study area. This indicates that the necessary conservation measures are not being taken in the area, and hence the wild edible plants are not free from threats.

4. Conclusion

The knowledge of wild food plants was transferred through songs, folklore, and riddles in local languages at different times especially when the people are at rest especially during the night time. The study revealed that all household members of the study area were involved in the collection and consumption of wild edible plant species. This helps to ensure the maintenance of indigenous knowledge associated with wild edible plant species. However, there is a decline in the consumption of some wild edible plant species that were used during periods of drought and famine such as the young seedling of Borassus aethiopum and the young stem of Phoenix reclinata which gradually lead to the fade-away of the indigenous knowledge associated with them. The local knowledge about the nutritional composition and side effects of the wild edible plant species is very scanty and little is known about undesirable side effects such as toxicity originating from the wild edible plants. Apart from their food and medicinal value, most of the identified wild edible plant species in the study area are used by the community for other different purpose. The local people harvest the wild edible plants not only for food but also for construction, fire wood, and furniture. Particularly, wild edible plant species such as Syzygium guineense and Cordia africana are multipurpose plant species widely used by the local communities. Thus, this has led to a high level of threats to the wild edible plant species in the study area. In addition, many of the wild edible plants found in the study area are found to be under growing pressure, due to anthropogenic and socioeconomic factors. This has resulted in the dwindling of the species of wild edible plants and the associated indigenous knowledge.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors have not declared any conflicts of interest.

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to the informants and local communities of Bullen district for sharing their incredible accumulated knowledge of the wild edible plants in the field. Without their contribution, this study would have been impossible.

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Copyright © 2017 Tariku Berihun and Eyayu Molla. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


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