Table of Contents
Journal of Biomarkers
Volume 2013, Article ID 413853, 6 pages
Research Article

Urinary Measurement of Neutrophil Gelatinase Associated Lipocalin and Kidney Injury Molecule-1 Helps Diagnose Acute Pyelonephritis in a Preclinical Model

1Department of Urology, Seoul National University Hospital, 101 Daehak-no, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-744, Republic of Korea
2Department of Urology, Sungkyunkwan University, 81 Irwon-Ro Gangnam-gu, Seoul 135-710, Republic of Korea
3Department of Urology, Armed Forces Capital Hospital, 177 Road, Bundang-gu, Sungnam si, Kyonggi do 463-040, Republic of Korea
4Department of Urology, Seoul National University Children’s Hospital, 101 Daehak-no, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-744, Republic of Korea

Received 10 August 2013; Accepted 6 November 2013

Academic Editor: Ranju Ralhan

Copyright © 2013 Hahn-Ey Lee et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Background. The study assessed whether measurement of urinary biomarkers of acute kidney injury could be helpful in diagnosing acute pyelonephritis and subsequent scarring. Method. Escherichia coli J96 (0.3 mL inoculum containing /mL) was directly injected into the renal cortex of 3-week-old female Sprague Dawley rats ( ), with saline substituted in a control group ( ). Following the injection, urine was collected 2, 7, 14, 28, and 42 days after injection. Urinary neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL), kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1), and interleukin-18 were quantitatively measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The levels of the biomarkers were adjusted for creatinine. Time course changes within a group or between the groups were compared. Correlation analysis was performed to understand the relationship between urinary levels and histological scarring. Results. Significantly elevated urinary NGAL was evident at two and seven days after injection, and Kim-1 was elevated at two days after injection. Receiver operating characteristic analyses confirmed the sensitivity of these markers at these times. No urinary marker at acute stage of APN was correlated with the amount of future scarring, negating their predictive value. Conclusion. Urinary NGAL and Kim-1 could be helpful in diagnosing febrile urinary tract infection in children.