Table 6: Cultivation-system-related parameters (own estimates based on/completed with [9, 25, 26]).

Raceway pondsClosed systems

Photoconversion efficiency1.55%
Typical biomass concentration0.5 to 12 to 9kg/m³
Spec. energy demand cultivation (per area)0.5 to 42.5 to 15*W/m²

B a s e d on the volumetric demand of 50 to 150 W/m³ for closed systems and a volume/surface ratio from 0.05 to 0.1 m³/m² [23, 27].