Journal of Combustion The latest articles from Hindawi © 2017 , Hindawi Limited . All rights reserved. Decomposition Characteristics and Kinetics of Microalgae in N2 and CO2 Atmospheres by a Thermogravimetry Wed, 15 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +0000 The thermal degradation characteristics of microalgae were investigated in highly purified N2 and CO2 atmospheres by a thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) under different heating rates (10, 20, and 40°C/min). The results indicated that the total residual mass in CO2 atmosphere (16.86%) was less than in N2 atmosphere (23.12%); in addition, the kinetics of microalgae in N2 and CO2 atmospheres could be described by the pseudo bicomponent separated state model (PBSM) and pseudo-multi-component overall model (PMOM), respectively. The kinetic parameters calculated by Coats-Redfern method showed that, in CO2 atmosphere, the apparent activation energy () of microalgae was between 9.863 and 309.381 kJ mol−1 and the reaction order () was varied from 1.1 to 7. The kinetic parameters of the second stage in CO2 atmosphere were quite similar to those in N2 atmosphere. Xu Qing, Ma Xiaoqian, Yu Zhaosheng, Cai Zilin, and Ling Changming Copyright © 2017 Xu Qing et al. All rights reserved. Study of the Radical Chain Mechanism of Hydrocarbon Oxidation for In Situ Combustion Process Mon, 06 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Despite the abundance of in situ combustion models of oil oxidation, many of the effects are still beyond consideration. For example, until now, initial stages of oxidation were not considered from a position of radical chain process. This is a serious difficulty for the simulation of oil recovery process that involves air injection. To investigate the initial stages of oxidation, the paper considers the sequence of chemical reactions, including intermediate short-living compounds and radicals. We have attempted to correlate the main stages of the reaction with areas of heat release observed in the experiments. The system of differential equations based on the equations of oxidation reactions was solved. Time dependence of peroxides formation and start of heat release is analytically derived for the initial stages. We have considered the inhibition of initial oxidation stages by aromatic oil compounds and have studied the induction time in dependence on temperature. Chain ignition criteria for paraffins and crude oil in presence of core samples were obtained. The calculation results are compared with the stages of oxidation that arise by high-pressure differential scanning calorimetry. According to experimental observations we have determined which reactions are important for the process and which can be omitted or combined into one as insignificant. Alexandra Ushakova, Vladislav Zatsepin, Mikhail Varfolomeev, and Dmitry Emelyanov Copyright © 2017 Alexandra Ushakova et al. All rights reserved. Parametric Study to Improve Subpixel Accuracy of Nitric Oxide Tagging Velocimetry with Image Preprocessing Mon, 20 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Biacetyl phosphorescence has been the commonly used molecular tagging velocimetry (MTV) technique to investigate in-cylinder flow evolution and cycle-to-cycle variations in an optical engine. As the phosphorescence of biacetyl tracer deteriorates in the presence of oxygen, nitrogen was adopted as the working medium in the past. Recently, nitrous oxide MTV technique was employed to measure the velocity profile of an air jet. The authors here plan to investigate the potential application of this technique for engine flow studies. A possible experimental setup for this task indicated different permutations of image signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and laser line width. In the current work, a numerical analysis is performed to study the effect of these two factors on displacement error in MTV image processing. Also, several image filtering techniques were evaluated and the performance of selected filters was analyzed in terms of enhancing the image quality and minimizing displacement errors. The flow displacement error without image preprocessing was observed to be inversely proportional to SNR and directly proportional to laser line width. The mean filter resulted in the smallest errors for line widths smaller than 9 pixels. The effect of filter size on subpixel accuracy showed that error levels increased as the filter size increased. Ravi Teja Vedula, Mayank Mittal, and Harold Schock Copyright © 2017 Ravi Teja Vedula et al. All rights reserved. Influence of Advanced Injection Timing and Fuel Additive on Combustion, Performance, and Emission Characteristics of a DI Diesel Engine Running on Plastic Pyrolysis Oil Wed, 15 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 This paper presents the investigation of engine optimisation when plastic pyrolysis oil (PPO) is used as the primary fuel of a direct injection diesel engine. Our previous investigation revealed that PPO is a promising fuel; however the results suggested that control parameters should be optimised in order to obtain a better engine performance. In the present work, the injection timing was advanced, and fuel additives were utilised to overcome the issues experienced in the previous work. In addition, spray characteristics of PPO were investigated in comparison with diesel to provide in-depth understanding of the engine behaviour. The experimental results on advanced injection timing (AIT) showed reduced brake thermal efficiency and increased carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides emissions in comparison to standard injection timing. On the other hand, the addition of fuel additive resulted in higher engine efficiency and lower exhaust emissions. Finally, the spray tests revealed that the spray tip penetration for PPO is faster than diesel. The results suggested that AIT is not a preferable option while fuel additive is a promising solution for long-term use of PPO in diesel engines. Ioannis Kalargaris, Guohong Tian, and Sai Gu Copyright © 2017 Ioannis Kalargaris et al. All rights reserved. Numerical Investigation of Critical Velocity in Reduced Scale Tunnel Fire with Constant Heat Release Rate Wed, 18 Jan 2017 06:17:04 +0000 When a fire occurs in a tunnel in the absence of sufficient air supply, large quantities of smoke are generated, filling the vehicles and any space available around them. Hot gases and smoke produced by fire form layers flowing towards extremities of the tunnel which may interfere with person’s evacuation and firefighter’s intervention. This paper carries out a numerical simulation of an unexpected fire occurring in a one-way tunnel in order to investigate for the critical velocity of the ventilation airflow; this one is defined as the minimum velocity able to maintain the combustion products in the downstream side of tunnel. The computation is performed successively with two types of fuels representing a large and a small heat release rate, owing to an open source CFD code called ISIS, which is specific to fires in confined and nonconfined environments. It is indicated that, after several computations of full-scale fires of 43.103 and 19.103 kJ/kg as heat release rate, the velocities satisfying the criterion of healthy environment in the upstream side of the tunnel are 1.34 m/s and 1.12 m/s, respectively. Ruben Mouangue, Philippe M. Onguene, Justin T. Zaida, and Henri P. F. Ekobena Copyright © 2017 Ruben Mouangue et al. All rights reserved. An Experimental Insight into the Smoldering-Flaming Transition Phenomenon Sun, 01 Jan 2017 12:31:55 +0000 Transitional phenomena of smoldering combustion over thin solid fuels are investigated. An experimental setup was upraised and implications of both smoldering and flaming external heat sources are estimated. Incense sticks were used as potential fuel and external smoldering heat source along with a fixed candle flame. The role of key controlling parameters, namely, separation distance and number of external heat sources in horizontal and vertical direction, was extensively examined. The surfacing issues of enclosure effect and the external heat sources orientation are addressed. The study primarily aims at understanding the feasibility and spontaneity of transition owing to external heat sources (both flaming and smoldering). Forward heat transfer significantly deviates qualitatively and quantitatively with varying separation distance in both directions. Number of external heat sources intensifies the transition phenomenon in smoldering combustion. With practical considerations, external heat sources arrangement and orientation have substantial effect on the combustion process. Poorva Shrivastava, Chakshu Baweja, Herambraj Nalawade, A. Vinoth Kumar, Vikram Ramanan, and Vinayak Malhotra Copyright © 2017 Poorva Shrivastava et al. All rights reserved. A Study of the Flow Field Surrounding Interacting Line Fires Mon, 26 Dec 2016 15:09:25 +0000 The interaction of converging fires often leads to significant changes in fire behavior, including increased flame length, angle, and intensity. In this paper, the fluid mechanics of two adjacent line fires are studied both theoretically and experimentally. A simple potential flow model is used to explain the tilting of interacting flames towards each other, which results from a momentum imbalance triggered by fire geometry. The model was validated by measuring the velocity field surrounding stationary alcohol pool fires. The flow field was seeded with high-contrast colored smoke, and the motion of smoke structures was analyzed using a cross-correlation optical flow technique. The measured velocities and flame angles are found to compare reasonably with the predicted values, and an analogy between merging fires and wind-blown flames is proposed. Trevor Maynard, Marko Princevac, and David R. Weise Copyright © 2016 Trevor Maynard et al. All rights reserved. Experimental Study on the Influence of DPF Micropore Structure and Particle Property on Its Filtration Process Thu, 22 Dec 2016 14:16:16 +0000 A single layer filtration system was developed to investigate the filtration and regeneration performance of diesel particle filter (DPF). The particle layer thickness was directly measured online to analyze the different filtration stages. The influence of particle property on particle layer stage performance was also investigated. The results indicate that the filtration velocity can greatly affect the deep bed filtration stage, and the deposited particle layer can be compressed even in very low filtration velocity and higher filtration velocity trends to form denser particle layer. Optimizing the pore structure can effectively shorten the deep bed filtration stage and reduce the pressure drop eventually. An empirical function was proposed to relate the pore structure and the initial increment rate of pressure drop, which presented that reducing the pore size distribution range () can result in low DPF filtration pressure drop. The filtration stage could be further divided into four stages, and the value of particle layer thickness ranging within 15~20 μm has been found to be critical number for the shift from the transient stage to the cake filtration stage. Particle with large primary diameter and BET surface was beneficial to form loose particle layer. Zhongwei Meng, Jia Fang, Yunfei Pu, Yan Yan, Yi Wu, Yongzhong Wang, and Qiang Song Copyright © 2016 Zhongwei Meng et al. All rights reserved. The Role of Hydrogen Bonding on Laminar Burning Velocity of Hydrous and Anhydrous Ethanol Fuel with Small Addition of n-Heptane Tue, 01 Nov 2016 14:08:42 +0000 The molecular structure of mixed hydrous and anhydrous ethanol with up to 10% v n-heptane had been studied. The burning velocity was examined in a cylindrical explosion combustion chamber. The result showed that the burning velocity of hydrous ethanol is higher than anhydrous ethanol and n-heptane at stoichiometric, rich, and very rich mixtures. The burning velocity of hydrous ethanol with n-heptane drops drastically compared to the burning velocity of anhydrous ethanol with n-heptane. It is caused by two reasons. Firstly, there was a composition change of azeotropic hydrous ethanol molecules within the mixture of fuel. Secondly, at the same volume the number of ethanol molecules in hydrous ethanol was less than in anhydrous ethanol at the same composition of the n-heptane in the mixture. At the mixture of anhydrous ethanol with n-heptane, the burning velocity decreases proportionally to the addition of the n-heptane composition. The burning velocity is between the velocities of anhydrous ethanol and n-heptane. It shows that the burning velocity of anhydrous ethanol mixed with n-heptane is only influenced by the mixture composition. I Made Suarta, I. N. G. Wardana, Nurkholis Hamidi, and Widya Wijayanti Copyright © 2016 I Made Suarta et al. All rights reserved. A Comparative CFD Study on Simulating Flameless Oxy-Fuel Combustion in a Pilot-Scale Furnace Sun, 16 Oct 2016 15:17:26 +0000 The current study presents a method to model the flameless oxy-fuel system, with a comparative approach, as well as validation of the predictions. The validation has been done by comparing the predicted results with previously published experimental results from a 200 kW pilot furnace. A suction pyrometer has been used to measure the local temperature and concentrations of CO, CO2, and O2 at 24 different locations. A three-dimensional CFD model was developed and the validity of using different submodels describing turbulence and chemical reactions was evaluated. The standard model was compared with the realizable model for turbulence, while Probability Density Function (PDF) with either chemical equilibrium or the Steady Laminar Flamelet Model (SLFM) was evaluated for combustion. Radiation was described using a Discrete Ordinates Model (DOM) with weighted-sum-of-grey-gases model (WSGGM). The smallest deviation between predictions and experiments for temperature (1.2%) was found using the realizable model and the SLFM. This improvement affects the prediction of gaseous species as well since the deviation between predictions and experiments for CO2 volume percentages decreased from 6% to 1.5%. This provides a recommendation for model selections in further studies on flameless oxy-fuel combustion. Mersedeh Ghadamgahi, Patrik Ölund, Tomas Ekman, Nils Andersson, and Pär Jönsson Copyright © 2016 Mersedeh Ghadamgahi et al. All rights reserved. Numerical Simulation of the Heat Transfer Behavior of a Zigzag Plate Containing a Phase Change Material for Combustion Heat Recovery and Power Generation Sun, 25 Sep 2016 13:51:54 +0000 This study presents a numerical analysis of the melting process of phase change materials (PCMs) within a latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) system employing zigzag plate. The numerical model used NaCl-MgCl2 mixture as PCMs and hot air as heat transfer fluid (HTF). An experimental system was built to validate the model, and the experimental data agrees reasonably well with the simulation results. The simulation results revealed the effects of the Reynolds and Stefan numbers and the surface topography of the zigzag plate on the charging process. Besides, the effect of the relationship between Reynolds and Stefan numbers on the charging process under a new boundary condition employing a fixed input power was studied. It is found that by modifying the shape of the zigzag plate surface it is feasible to enhance the heat transfer of the LHTES unit remarkably. The melting rate of PCMs increases with the value of Ste or Re numbers with only one of them changing; however, the melting rate of PCMs decreases with the increasing Ste (or decreasing Re) in a fixed input power condition. Peilun Wang, Pengxiang Song, Yun Huang, Zhijian Peng, and Yulong Ding Copyright © 2016 Peilun Wang et al. All rights reserved. Numerical Analysis of Turbulent Combustion in a Model Swirl Gas Turbine Combustor Thu, 15 Sep 2016 16:05:11 +0000 Turbulent reacting flows in a generic swirl gas turbine combustor are investigated numerically. Turbulence is modelled by a URANS formulation in combination with the SST turbulence model, as the basic modelling approach. For comparison, URANS is applied also in combination with the RSM turbulence model to one of the investigated cases. For this case, LES is also used for turbulence modelling. For modelling turbulence-chemistry interaction, a laminar flamelet model is used, which is based on the mixture fraction and the reaction progress variable. This model is implemented in the open source CFD code OpenFOAM, which has been used as the basis for the present investigation. For validation purposes, predictions are compared with the measurements for a natural gas flame with external flue gas recirculation. A good agreement with the experimental data is observed. Subsequently, the numerical study is extended to syngas, for comparing its combustion behavior with that of natural gas. Here, the analysis is carried out for cases without external flue gas recirculation. The computational model is observed to provide a fair prediction of the experimental data and predict the increased flashback propensity of syngas. Ali Cemal Benim, Sohail Iqbal, Franz Joos, and Alexander Wiedermann Copyright © 2016 Ali Cemal Benim et al. All rights reserved. A Numerical Study on the Oscillating Flow Induced by an Acoustic Field around Coal Particles Mon, 05 Sep 2016 09:23:35 +0000 In order to investigate the acoustically driven oscillating flow around coal particles in the power plant boiler, the two-dimensional, unsteady mass and momentum conservation equations for laminar flow in spherical coordinates are developed numerically. The velocity field, axial pressure gradient, shear stress, and flow separation angle on the particle surface are carefully analyzed with different values of acoustic Reynolds number and Strouhal number. The minimum frequency required for flow separation is also investigated with different SPL (sound pressure level). The axial pressure gradient, shear stress, and separation angle on the surface are proportional to the magnitude of the oscillating flow velocity at low frequency (~50 Hz). However, those physical quantities have different values at high frequency (~5000 Hz), due to the combined effect of curvature and the flow acceleration. Genshan Jiang, Weilong Xu, Yuechao Liu, Yapan Wu, and Qian Kong Copyright © 2016 Genshan Jiang et al. All rights reserved. The Role of Molecule Clustering by Hydrogen Bond in Hydrous Ethanol on Laminar Burning Velocity Wed, 08 Jun 2016 08:12:23 +0000 The role of hydrogen bond molecule clustering in laminar burning velocities was observed. The water in hydrous ethanol can change the interaction between water-ethanol molecules. A certain amount of water can become oxygenated which increases the burning velocity. The hydrogen bond interaction pattern of ethanol and water molecules was modeled. Based on the molecular model, azeotropic behavior emerges from ethanol-water hydrogen bond, which is at a 95.1%v composition. The interaction with water molecule causes the ethanol molecule to be clustered with centered oxygenated compound. So, it supplies extra oxygen and provides intermolecular empty spaces that are easily infiltrated by the air. In the azeotropic composition, the molecular bond chain is the shortest, so hypothetically the burning velocity is anticipated to increase. The laminar burning velocity of ethanol fuel was tested in a cylindrical explosion bomb in lean, stoichiometric, and rich mixtures. The experimental result showed that the maximum burning velocity occurred at hydrous ethanol of 95.5%v composition. This discrepancy is the result of the addition of energy from 7.7% free ethanol molecules that are not clustered. At the rich mixture, the burning velocity of this composition is higher than that of anhydrous ethanol. I Made Suarta, I. N. G. Wardana, Nurkholis Hamidi, and Widya Wijayanti Copyright © 2016 I Made Suarta et al. All rights reserved. Large Eddy Simulation of a Swirl-Stabilized Pilot Combustor from Conventional to Flameless Mode Tue, 31 May 2016 07:03:50 +0000 This paper investigates flame and flow structure of a swirl-stabilized pilot combustor in conventional, high temperature, and flameless modes by means of a partially stirred reactor combustion model to provide a better insight into designing lean premixed combustion devices with preheating system. Finite rate chemistry combustion model with one step tuned mechanism and large eddy simulation is used to numerically simulate six cases in these modes. Results show that moving towards high temperature mode by increasing the preheating level, the combustor is prone to formation of thermal with higher risks of flashback. In addition, the flame becomes shorter and thinner with higher turbulent kinetic energies. On the other hand, towards the flameless mode, leaning the preheated mixture leads to almost thermal -free combustion with lower risk of flashback and thicker and longer flames. Simulations also show qualitative agreements with available experiments, indicating that the current combustion model with one step tuned mechanisms is capable of capturing main features of the turbulent flame in a wide range of mixture temperature and equivalence ratios. Ehsan Fooladgar and C. K. Chan Copyright © 2016 Ehsan Fooladgar and C. K. Chan. All rights reserved. Characterization of Some Nigerian Coals for Power Generation Thu, 12 May 2016 17:32:09 +0000 Five coal samples from Odagbo (Kogi State), Owukpa (Benue State), Ezimo (Enugu State), Amansiodo (Enugu State), and Inyi (Enugu State) of Nigerian coal deposits were subjected to proximate analysis, ultimate analysis, calorific value determination, and petrographic and thermogravimetric analysis to determine their suitability for power generation. Based on results of tests carried out, Amansiodo coal is a bituminous, low sulphur, and medium ash coal, while Owukpa coal is a subbituminous A, low sulphur, low ash coal rich in huminites, Odagbo coal is a subbituminous B, medium sulphur, low ash coal rich in huminites, Ezimo coal is a subbituminous C, low sulphur, high ash coal, and Inyi coal is a subbituminous C, low sulphur, high ash coal. Between Odagbo and Owukpa subbituminous coals, Owukpa has a lower ignition temperature (283.63°C) due to its higher volatile matter content (39.1%). However, Ezimo subbituminous coal, which has a lower volatile matter (31.1%), unexpectedly has the same ignition temperature as Owukpa (283.63°C) due to its higher liptinite content (7.2%) when compared with that of Owukpa (2.9%). The ease of combustion of the coal samples in decreasing order is Odagbo < Owukpa < Inyi < Ezimo < Amansiodo. M. Chukwu, C. O. Folayan, G. Y. Pam, and D. O. Obada Copyright © 2016 M. Chukwu et al. All rights reserved. Influence of Environmentally Friendly and High-Efficiency Composite Additives on Pulverized Coal Combustion in Cement Industry Mon, 04 Apr 2016 11:31:45 +0000 4 kinds of chemical reagents and 3 kinds of industrial wastes were selected as burning additives for 2 kinds of coals in cement industry. The work focused on the replacement of partial chemical reagents by industrial wastes, which not only reduced the cost and took full advantage of industrial wastes, but also guaranteed the high combustion efficiency and removed the and SO2 simultaneously. The experiments were carried out in DTF. The combustion residues were analyzed by SEM and XRD. The results showed that the burnout rate was increased after adding the additives; meanwhile, the and SO2 release concentration were reduced, but the degree of action varied for different additives and coals. The substitute of chemical reagents by industrial wastes was very effective; overall, the cold-rolled iron oxide worked better than others; the particles surface was tougher and the peaks of crystalline phase were lower than raw coal, which indicated that the additives played good roles in combustion process. Zhiyong Wang, Shijie Wang, Qi Zhang, Qingyan Fang, and Wangsheng Chen Copyright © 2016 Zhiyong Wang et al. All rights reserved. Pyrolysis Kinetic Modelling of Wheat Straw from the Pannonian Region Sun, 03 Apr 2016 14:51:39 +0000 The pyrolysis/devolatilization is a basic step of thermochemical processes and requires fundamental characterization. In this paper, the kinetic model of pyrolysis is specified as a one-step global reaction. This type of reaction is used to describe the thermal degradation of wheat straw samples by measuring rates of mass loss of solid matter at a linear increase in temperature. The mentioned experiments were carried out using a derivatograph in an open-air environment. The influence of different factors was investigated, such as particle size, humidity levels, and the heating rate in the kinetics of devolatilization. As the measured values of mass loss and temperature functions transform in Arrhenius coordinates, the results are shown in the form of saddle curves. Such characteristics cannot be approximated with one equation in the form of Arrhenius law. For use in numerical applications, transformed functions can be approximated by linear regression for three separate intervals. Analysis of measurement resulting in granulation and moisture content variations shows that these factors have no significant influence. Tests of heating rate variations confirm the significance of this impact, especially in warmer regions. The influence of this factor should be more precisely investigated as a general variable, which should be the topic of further experiments. Ivan Pešenjanski, Biljana Miljković, and Marija Vićević Copyright © 2016 Ivan Pešenjanski et al. All rights reserved. Ignition by Hot Transient Jets in Confined Mixtures of Gaseous Fuels and Air Sun, 27 Mar 2016 09:03:47 +0000 Ignition of a combustible mixture by a transient jet of hot reactive gas is important for safety of mines, prechamber ignition in IC engines, detonation initiation, and novel constant-volume combustors. The present work is a numerical study of the hot jet ignition process in a long constant-volume combustor (CVC) that represents a wave rotor channel. The hot jet of combustion products from a prechamber is injected through a converging nozzle into the main CVC chamber containing a premixed fuel-air mixture. Combustion in a two-dimensional analogue of the CVC chamber is modeled using a global reaction mechanism, a skeletal mechanism, or a detailed reaction mechanism for three hydrocarbon fuels: methane, propane, and ethylene. Turbulence is modeled using the two-equation SST -ω model, and each reaction rate is limited by the local turbulent mixing timescale. Hybrid turbulent-kinetic schemes using some skeletal reaction mechanisms and detailed mechanisms are good predictors of the experimental data. Shock wave traverse of the reaction zone is seen to significantly increase the overall reaction rate, likely due to compression heating, as well as baroclinic vorticity generation that stirs and mixes reactants and increases flame area. Less easily ignitable methane mixture is found to show slower initial reaction and greater dependence on shock interaction than propane and ethylene. Abdullah Karimi and M. Razi Nalim Copyright © 2016 Abdullah Karimi and M. Razi Nalim. All rights reserved. NOx, Soot, and Fuel Consumption Predictions under Transient Operating Cycle for Common Rail High Power Density Diesel Engines Thu, 24 Mar 2016 11:03:47 +0000 Diesel engine is presently facing the challenge of controlling NOx and soot emissions on transient cycles, to meet stricter emission norms and to control emissions during field operations. Development of a simulation tool for NOx and soot emissions prediction on transient operating cycles has become the most important objective, which can significantly reduce the experimentation time and cost required for tuning these emissions. Hence, in this work, a 0D comprehensive predictive model has been formulated with selection and coupling of appropriate combustion and emissions models to engine cycle models. Selected combustion and emissions models are further modified to improve their prediction accuracy in the full operating zone. Responses of the combustion and emissions models have been validated for load and “start of injection” changes. Model predicted transient fuel consumption, air handling system parameters, and NOx and soot emissions are in good agreement with measured data on a turbocharged high power density common rail engine for the “nonroad transient cycle” (NRTC). It can be concluded that 0D models can be used for prediction of transient emissions on modern engines. How the formulated approach can also be extended to transient emissions prediction for other applications and fuels is also discussed. N. H. Walke, M. R. Nandgaonkar, and N. V. Marathe Copyright © 2016 N. H. Walke et al. All rights reserved. The Effect of Injection Timings on Performance and Emissions of Compressed Natural-Gas Direct Injection Engine Thu, 24 Mar 2016 06:06:31 +0000 This experimental part investigates the effect of injection timing on performance and emissions of homogenous mixture compressed natural-gas direct injection. The engine of 1.6 L capacity, 4 cylinders, spark ignition, and compression ratio of 14 was used. Performance and emission were recorded under wide-open throttle using an engine control system (Rotronics) and the portable exhaust gas analyser (Kane). The engine was tested at speed ranging from 1500 revolutions per minute (RPM) to 4000 RPM with 500 RPM increments. The engine control unit (ECU) was modified using Motec 800. The injection timings investigated were at the end of injection (EOI) 120 bTDC, 180 bTDC, 300 bTDC, and 360 bTDC. Results show high brake power, torque, and BMEP with 120 as compared with the other injection timings. At 4000 RPM the power, torque, and BMEP with 120 were 5% compared to that with 180. Furthermore, it shows low BSFC and high fuel conversion efficiency with 120. With 360, the engine produced less CO and CO2 at higher speeds. Saad Aljamali, Shahrir Abdullah, Wan Moh Faizal Wan Mahmood, and Yusoff Ali Copyright © 2016 Saad Aljamali et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of a Semiempirical, Zero-Dimensional, Multizone Model to Predict Nitric Oxide Emissions in DI Diesel Engines’ Combustion Chamber Wed, 16 Mar 2016 07:49:41 +0000 In the present study, a semiempirical, zero-dimensional multizone model, developed by the authors, is implemented on two automotive diesel engines, a heavy-duty truck engine and a light-duty passenger car engine with pilot fuel injection, for various operating conditions including variation of power/speed, EGR rate, fuel injection timing, fuel injection pressure, and boost pressure, to verify its capability for Nitric Oxide (NO) emission prediction. The model utilizes cylinder’s basic geometry and engine operating data and measured cylinder pressure to estimate the apparent combustion rate which is then discretized into burning zones according to the calculation step used. The requisite unburnt charge for the combustion in the zones is calculated using the zone equivalence ratio provided from a new empirical formula involving parameters derived from the processing of the measured cylinder pressure and typical engine operating parameters. For the calculation of NO formation, the extended Zeldovich mechanism is used. From this approach, the model is able to provide the evolution of NO formation inside each burned zone and, cumulatively, the cylinder’s NO formation history. As proven from the investigation conducted herein, the proposed model adequately predicts NO emissions and NO trends when the engine settings vary, with low computational cost. These encourage its use for engine control optimization regarding NOx abatement and real-time/model-based NOx control applications. Nicholas S. Savva and Dimitrios T. Hountalas Copyright © 2016 Nicholas S. Savva and Dimitrios T. Hountalas. All rights reserved. Formation of Liquid Products at the Filtration Combustion of Solid Fuels Mon, 14 Mar 2016 06:28:07 +0000 Yields of liquid and gaseous products of the filtration combustion of cellulose, wood, peat, coal, and rubber have been investigated. Experiments have shown that the gasification of solid fuels in the regime with superadiabatic heating yields liquid hydrocarbons with quantity and quality, which are close to those produced using other methods, for example, by pyrolysis. But in this case no additional energy supply is needed to carry out the gasification process. The low calorific combustible gas, which forms in this process, contains a substantial quantity of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, which are components of syngas. E. A. Salgansky, V. M. Kislov, S. V. Glazov, and M. V. Salganskaya Copyright © 2016 E. A. Salgansky et al. All rights reserved. On Laminar Rich Premixed Polydisperse Spray Flame Propagation with Heat Loss Wed, 02 Mar 2016 12:51:05 +0000 A mathematical analysis of laminar premixed spray flame propagation with heat loss is presented. The analysis makes use of a distributed approximation of the Arrhenius exponential term in the reaction rate expression and leads to an implicit expression for the laminar burning velocity dependent on the spray-related parameters for the fuel, gas-related parameters and the intensity of the heat losses. It is shown that the initial droplet load, the value of the evaporation coefficient, and the initial size distribution are the spray-related parameters which exert an influence on the onset of extinction. The combination of these parameters governs the manner in which the spray heat loss is distributed spatially and it is this feature that is the main factor, when taken together with volumetric heat loss, which determines the spray’s impact on flame propagation and extinction. G. Kats and J. B. Greenberg Copyright © 2016 G. Kats and J. B. Greenberg. All rights reserved. Comparative Numerical Study of Four Biodiesel Surrogates for Application on Diesel 0D Phenomenological Modeling Mon, 29 Feb 2016 08:08:58 +0000 To meet more stringent norms and standards concerning engine performances and emissions, engine manufacturers need to develop new technologies enhancing the nonpolluting properties of the fuels. In that sense, the testing and development of alternative fuels such as biodiesel are of great importance. Fuel testing is nowadays a matter of experimental and numerical work. Researches on diesel engine’s fuel involve the use of surrogates, for which the combustion mechanisms are well known and relatively similar to the investigated fuel. Biodiesel, due to its complex molecular configuration, is still the subject of numerous investigations in that area. This study presents the comparison of four biodiesel surrogates, methyl-butanoate, ethyl-butyrate, methyl-decanoate, and methyl-9-decenoate, in a 0D phenomenological combustion model. They were investigated for in-cylinder pressure, thermal efficiency, and emissions. Experiments were performed on a six-cylinder turbocharged DI diesel engine fuelled by methyl ester (MEB) and ethyl ester (EEB) biodiesel from wasted frying oil. Results showed that, among the four surrogates, methyl butanoate presented better results for all the studied parameters. In-cylinder pressure and thermal efficiency were predicted with good accuracy by the four surrogates. emissions were well predicted for methyl butanoate but for the other three gave approximation errors over 50%. Claude Valery Ngayihi Abbe, Raidandi Danwe, and Robert Nzengwa Copyright © 2016 Claude Valery Ngayihi Abbe et al. All rights reserved. Real Costs Assessment of Solar-Hydrogen and Some Fossil Fuels by means of a Combustion Analysis Wed, 03 Feb 2016 10:24:11 +0000 In order to compare solar-hydrogen and the most used fossil fuels, the evaluation of the “external” costs related to their use is required. These costs involve the environmental damage produced by the combustion reactions, the health problems caused by air pollution, the damage to land from fuel mining, and the environmental degradation linked to the global warming, the acid rains, and the water pollution. For each fuel, the global cost is determined as sum of the market price and of the correspondent external costs. In order to obtain a quantitative comparison, the quality of the different combustion reactions and the efficiency of the technologies employed in the specific application sector have to be considered adequately. At this purpose, an entropic index that considers the degree of irreversibility produced during the combustion process and the degradation of surroundings is introduced. Additionally, an environmental index that measures the pollutants released during the combustions is proposed. The combination of these indexes and the efficiency of the several technologies employed in four energy sectors have allowed the evaluation of the total costs, highlighting an economic scenario from which the real advantages concerning the exploitation of different energy carrier are determined. Giovanni Nicoletti, Roberto Bruno, Natale Arcuri, and Gerardo Nicoletti Copyright © 2016 Giovanni Nicoletti et al. All rights reserved. Review of Sensing Methodologies for Estimation of Combustion Metrics Thu, 28 Jan 2016 12:26:12 +0000 For reduction of engine-out emissions and improvement of fuel economy, closed-loop control of the combustion process has been explored and documented by many researchers. In the closed-loop control, the engine control parameters are optimized according to the estimated instantaneous combustion metrics provided by the combustion sensing process. Combustion sensing process is primarily composed of two aspects: combustion response signal acquisition and response signal processing. As a number of different signals have been employed as the response signal and the signal processing techniques can be different, this paper did a review work concerning the two aspects: combustion response signals and signal processing techniques. In-cylinder pressure signal was not investigated as one of the response signals in this paper since it has been studied and documented in many publications and also due to its high cost and inconvenience in the application. Libin Jia, Jeffrey D. Naber, and Jason R. Blough Copyright © 2016 Libin Jia et al. All rights reserved. Thermodynamic Model for Updraft Gasifier with External Recirculation of Pyrolysis Gas Mon, 18 Jan 2016 14:18:35 +0000 Most of the thermodynamic modeling of gasification for updraft gasifier uses one process of decomposition (decomposition of fuel). In the present study, a thermodynamic model which uses two processes of decomposition (decomposition of fuel and char) is used. The model is implemented in modification of updraft gasifier with external recirculation of pyrolysis gas to the combustion zone and the gas flowing out from the side stream (reduction zone) in the updraft gasifier. The goal of the model obtains the influences of amount of recirculation pyrolysis gas fraction to combustion zone on combustible gas and tar. The significant results of modification updraft are that the increases amount of recirculation of pyrolysis gas will increase the composition of H2 and reduce the composition of tar; then the composition of CO and CH4 is dependent on equivalence ratio. The results of the model for combustible gas composition are compared with previous study. Fajri Vidian, Adi Surjosatyo, and Yulianto Sulistyo Nugroho Copyright © 2016 Fajri Vidian et al. All rights reserved. Review on Recent Advances in Pulse Detonation Engines Mon, 18 Jan 2016 12:55:45 +0000 Pulse detonation engines (PDEs) are new exciting propulsion technologies for future propulsion applications. The operating cycles of PDE consist of fuel-air mixture, combustion, blowdown, and purging. The combustion process in pulse detonation engine is the most important phenomenon as it produces reliable and repeatable detonation waves. The detonation wave initiation in detonation tube in practical system is a combination of multistage combustion phenomena. Detonation combustion causes rapid burning of fuel-air mixture, which is a thousand times faster than deflagration mode of combustion process. PDE utilizes repetitive detonation wave to produce propulsion thrust. In the present paper, detailed review of various experimental studies and computational analysis addressing the detonation mode of combustion in pulse detonation engines are discussed. The effect of different parameters on the improvement of propulsion performance of pulse detonation engine has been presented in detail in this research paper. It is observed that the design of detonation wave flow path in detonation tube, ejectors at exit section of detonation tube, and operating parameters such as Mach numbers are mainly responsible for improving the propulsion performance of PDE. In the present review work, further scope of research in this area has also been suggested. K. M. Pandey and Pinku Debnath Copyright © 2016 K. M. Pandey and Pinku Debnath. All rights reserved. Eucalyptus-Palm Kernel Oil Blends: A Complete Elimination of Diesel in a 4-Stroke VCR Diesel Engine Wed, 09 Dec 2015 08:02:09 +0000 Fuels derived from biomass are mostly preferred as alternative fuels for IC engines as they are abundantly available and renewable in nature. The objective of the study is to identify the parameters that influence gross indicated fuel conversion efficiency and how they are affected by the use of biodiesel relative to petroleum diesel. Important physicochemical properties of palm kernel oil and eucalyptus blend were experimentally evaluated and found within acceptable limits of relevant standards. As most of vegetable oils are edible, growing concern for trying nonedible and waste fats as alternative to petrodiesel has emerged. In present study diesel fuel is completely replaced by biofuels, namely, methyl ester of palm kernel oil and eucalyptus oil in various blends. Different blends of palm kernel oil and eucalyptus oil are prepared on volume basis and used as operating fuel in single cylinder 4-stroke variable compression ratio diesel engine. Performance and emission characteristics of these blends are studied by varying the compression ratio. In the present experiment methyl ester extracted from palm kernel oil is considered as ignition improver and eucalyptus oil is considered as the fuel. The blends taken are PKE05 (palm kernel oil 95 + eucalyptus 05), PKE10 (palm kernel oil 90 + eucalyptus 10), and PKE15 (palm kernel 85 + eucalyptus 15). The results obtained by operating with these fuels are compared with results of pure diesel; finally the most preferable combination and the preferred compression ratio are identified. Srinivas Kommana, Balu Naik Banoth, and Kalyani Radha Kadavakollu Copyright © 2015 Srinivas Kommana et al. All rights reserved.