Table of Contents
Journal of Catalysts
Volume 2013, Article ID 723957, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/723957
Research Article

Surface Modification of Fly Ash for Active Catalysis

1Department of Applied Chemistry, Gautam Buddha University, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh 201308, India
2Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, University of Kota, Rajasthan 324005, India

Received 29 January 2013; Revised 5 May 2013; Accepted 20 May 2013

Academic Editor: Vijay Bokade

Copyright © 2013 Deepti Jain et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Fly ash based effective solid base catalyst (KF/Al2O3/fly ash473, KF/Al2O3/fly ash673, and KF/Al2O3/fly ash873) was synthesized by loading KF over chemically and thermally activated fly ash. The chemical activation was done by treating fly ash with aluminum nitrate via precipitation method followed by thermal activation at 650°C to increase the alumina content in fly ash. The increased alumina content was confirmed by SEM-EDX analysis. The alumina enriched fly ash was then loaded with KF (10 wt%) and calcined at three different temperatures 473 K, 673 K and 873 K. The amount of loaded KF was monitored by XRD, FTIR spectroscopy, SEM-EDX, TEM and Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The catalytic activities of the catalysts were tested in the Claisen-Schmidt condensation of benzaldehyde and 4-methoxybenzaldehyde with 2′-hydroxyacetophenone to produce 2′-hydroxychalcone and 4-methoxy-2′-hydroxychalcone respectively. Higher conversion (83%) of benzaldehyde and (89%) of 4-methoxybenzaldehyde reveals that among these heterogeneous catalysts KF/Al2O3/fly ash673 is very active.