Table of Contents
Journal of Catalysts
Volume 2014, Article ID 128547, 9 pages
Research Article

Modification of Silica Rice Husk Ash to Solid Ammonium Sulphate for Second Generation Biofuels Productions

1Chemistry Department, College of Science, Al-Muthanna University, Iraq
2Chemistry Department, College of Science, Kufa University, Iraq
3School of Chemical Sciences, University Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia

Received 25 August 2014; Revised 18 October 2014; Accepted 23 October 2014; Published 9 December 2014

Academic Editor: Mohammed M. Bettahar

Copyright © 2014 Kasim Mohammed Hello et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


A new approach has been demonstrated for the synthesis of solid ammonium sulphate attached to silica rice husk ash. The 3-(aminopropyl)triethoxysilane was immobilized onto silica at room temperature to functionalize the silica with ammine end groups (–NH2). The amine group was sulphated with sulphuric acid to produce a novel micro-rod-like shaped acidic catalyst (as seen with TEM) designated RHNH3SO4H (RH = rice husk). The TGA analysis shows that the catalyst is stable at temperatures below 200°C. The acidity measurement of the catalyst indicates that it has Brønsted acid sites. Cellulose extracted from waste of rice husk and cellulose extracted from office paper were hydrolysed to glucose in 6 h, and the glucose was hydrolysed afterwards to other products within 13 h. The catalyst is reusable many times without a significant loss of catalytic activity.