Journal of Cancer Epidemiology The latest articles from Hindawi © 2017 , Hindawi Limited . All rights reserved. Cancer Prevention in Low- and Middle-Income Countries Wed, 22 Feb 2017 06:37:56 +0000 Subhojit Dey, Preet K. Dhillon, and Preetha Rajaraman Copyright © 2017 Subhojit Dey et al. All rights reserved. Patterns of Sociodemographic and Clinicopathologic Characteristics of Stages II and III Colorectal Cancer Patients by Age: Examining Potential Mechanisms of Young-Onset Disease Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Background and Aims. As a first step toward understanding the increasing incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in younger (age < 50) populations, we examined demographic, clinicopathologic, and socioeconomic characteristics and treatment receipt in a population-based sample of patients newly diagnosed with stages II and III CRC. Methods. Patients were sampled from the National Cancer Institute’s Patterns of Care studies in 1990/91, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010 (). Tumor characteristics and treatment data were obtained through medical record review and physician verification. We compared sociodemographic and clinicopathologic characteristics and treatment patterns of younger (age < 50) and older (age 50–69, age ≥ 70) CRC patients. Results. Younger patients were more likely to be black (13%) and Hispanic (15%) than patients aged 50–69 years (11% and 10%, resp.) and ≥70 years (7% each). A larger proportion of young white (41%) and Hispanic (33%) patients had rectal tumors, whereas tumors in the right colon were the most common in young black patients (39%). The majority of younger patients received chemotherapy and radiation therapy, although receipt of microsatellite instability testing was suboptimal (27%). Conclusion. Characteristics of patients diagnosed with young-onset CRC differ considerably by race/ethnicity, with a higher proportion of black and Hispanic patients diagnosed at the age of < 50 years. Caitlin C. Murphy, Hanna K. Sanoff, Karyn B. Stitzenberg, John A. Baron, Jennifer L. Lund, and Robert S. Sandler Copyright © 2017 Caitlin C. Murphy et al. All rights reserved. A Case-Control Study of Risk Factors for Salivary Gland Cancer in Canada Wed, 04 Jan 2017 14:19:41 +0000 Aim. To assess the effect of various lifestyle risk factors on the risk of salivary gland cancer in Canada using data from a population-based case-control study. Methods. Data from a population-based case-control study of 132 incident cases of salivary gland cancer and 3076 population controls were collected through self-administered questionnaire and analysed using unconditional logistic regression. Results. Four or more servings/week of processed meat product was associated with an adjusted odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.62 (1.02–2.58). Nonsignificantly increased ORs were also related to obesity, >7 drinks/week of alcohol consumption, and occupational exposure to radiation. Furthermore, nonsignificantly decreased ORs were found to be associated with high education level (>12 years) (), high consumption of spinach/squash () and all vegetables/vegetable juices (), and >30 sessions/month of recreational physical activity (). Conclusions. This study suggests positive associations with consumption of processed meat, smoking, obesity, alcohol drinking, and occupational exposure to radiation as well as negative associations with higher education, consumption of spinach/squash, and physical activity, which suggest a role of lifestyle factors in the etiology of salivary gland cancer. However, these findings were based on small number of cases and were nonsignificant. Further larger studies are warranted to confirm our findings. Sai Yi Pan, Margaret de Groh, and Howard Morrison Copyright © 2017 Sai Yi Pan et al. All rights reserved. Role of Private Enterprise in Cancer Control in Low to Middle Income Countries Tue, 13 Dec 2016 13:41:13 +0000 Background. About 65% of cancer deaths globally occur in low to middle income countries (LMICs) where prioritization and allocation of resources to cancer care are often quite poor. In the absence of governmental focus on this problem, public-private partnerships may be an avenue to provide effective cancer control. Methods. This manuscript highlights the establishment of a nongovernmental organization (NGO) to stimulate the development of partnerships between oncology professionals, private enterprise, and academic institutions, both locally and internationally. Examples of capacity building, grant support, establishment of collaborative networks, and the development of a facility to provide clinical care are highlighted. Results. Collaborations were established between oncology professionals at academic institutions in the US and Nigeria. Cancer control workshops were conducted in Nigeria with grant support from the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC). A monthly tumor board conference was established at LASUTH in Lagos, and further capacity building is underway with grant support from the United States NCI. An outpatient, privately funded oncology clinic in Lagos has been launched. Conclusion. In LMICs, effective partnership between public and private institutions can lead to tangible strides in cancer control. The use of creative healthcare financing models can also support positive change. Chukwumere E. Nwogu, Martin Mahoney, Ifeoma Okoye, Kenneth Ejiogu, Saby George, Grace Dy, Mutiu Jimoh, Omolola Salako, Oge Ilegbune, Bindiya Chugani, Emmanuel Ezeome, Abiodun O. Popoola, and Arthur M. Michalek Copyright © 2016 Chukwumere E. Nwogu et al. All rights reserved. Genetic and Clinical Features of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma: The Experience of a Single Center in Costa Rica Sun, 27 Nov 2016 12:44:53 +0000 Background. Activating mutations in the RET gene leads to medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). Guidelines encourage performing RET analysis in subjects with hereditary and sporadic disease. Materials and Methods. Design. Observational, case series report study. Patients. Subjects diagnosed with MTC, with a thyroidectomy performed in a single center in Costa Rica between the years 2006 and 2015. Diagnosis and Follow-Up. Pre- and postoperative calcitonin, RET mutation, and neck ultrasound and tomography were obtained. Results. 21 subjects with histological diagnosis of MTC were followed up. The average age at diagnosis was 52.0 ± 15.7 years. The preoperative mean value of calcitonin was 1340 ± 665 pg/mL. Evidence of RET mutation was found in 26.3% of the patients, with only 2 of them grouped in the same kindred. We found statistically significant differences in mean ages between mutated (38.4 ± 20.2 y) versus nonmutated RET gene (54.6 ± 11.8 y, ). There were no significant differences regarding tumor size, metastases, and surgical reintervention. Conclusions. We report the results of RET mutation analysis in subjects with MTC in a single center of Costa Rica. The availability of this tool increases the probability of identifying familial MTC, with the benefit of detecting affected subjects and their relatives at an earlier age. Javier Calvo, Gabriel Torrealba, Adriana Sáenz, Carlos Santamaría, Estela Morera, Silvia Alvarado, Yolanda Roa, and Michelle González Copyright © 2016 Javier Calvo et al. All rights reserved. Pattern and Distribution of Colorectal Cancer in Tanzania: A Retrospective Chart Audit at Two National Hospitals Mon, 14 Nov 2016 13:40:15 +0000 Background. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a growing public health concern with increasing rates in countries with previously known low incidence. This study determined pattern and distribution of CRC in Tanzania and identified hot spots in case distribution. Methods. A retrospective chart audit reviewed hospital registers and patient files from two national institutions. Descriptive statistics, Chi square () tests, and regression analyses were employed and augmented by data visualization to display risk variable differences. Results. CRC cases increased sixfold in the last decade in Tanzania. There was a 1.5% decrease in incidences levels of rectal cancer and 2% increase for colon cancer every year from 2005 to 2015. Nearly half of patients listed Dar es Salaam as their primary residence. CRC was equally distributed between males (50.06%) and females (49.94%), although gender likelihood of diagnosis type (i.e., rectal or colon) was significantly different (). More than 60% of patients were between 40 and 69 years. Conclusions. Age () and time () but not gender () were significantly associated with rectal cancer in a retrospective study in Tanzania. Gender (), age (), and time () were all significantly associated with colon cancer in this study. This retrospective study found that colon cancer is more prevalent among males at a relatively younger age than rectal cancer. Further, our study showed that although more patients were diagnosed with rectal cancer, the trend has shown that colon cancer is increasing at a faster rate. Leonard K. Katalambula, Julius Edward Ntwenya, Twalib Ngoma, Joram Buza, Emmanuel Mpolya, Abdallah H. Mtumwa, and Pammla Petrucka Copyright © 2016 Leonard K. Katalambula et al. All rights reserved. Risk of Cancer among Commercially Insured HIV-Infected Adults on Antiretroviral Therapy Wed, 02 Nov 2016 06:15:32 +0000 The objective of this study was to explore the cancer incidence rates among HIV-infected persons with commercial insurance who were on antiretroviral therapy and compare them with those rates in the general population. Paid health insurance claims for 63,221 individuals 18 years or older, with at least one claim with a diagnostic code for HIV and at least one filled prescription for an antiretroviral medication between January 1, 2006, and September 30, 2012, were obtained from the LifeLink® Health Plan Claims Database. The expected number of cancer cases in the general population for each gender-age group (<30, 30–39, 40–49, 50–59, and >60 years) was estimated using incidence rates from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were estimated using their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Compared to the general population, incidence rates for HIV-infected adults were elevated (SIR, 95% CI) for Kaposi sarcoma (46.08; 38.74–48.94), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (4.22; 3.63–4.45), Hodgkin lymphoma (9.83; 7.45–10.84), and anal cancer (30.54; 25.62–32.46) and lower for colorectal cancer (0.69; 0.52–0.76), lung cancer (0.70; 0.54, 0.77), and prostate cancer (0.54; 0.45–0.58). Commercially insured, treated HIV-infected adults had elevated rates for infection-related cancers, but not for common non-AIDS defining cancers. Jeannette Y. Lee, Ishwori Dhakal, Corey Casper, Ariela Noy, Joel M. Palefsky, Missak Haigentz, Susan E. Krown, Richard F. Ambinder, and Ronald T. Mitsuyasu Copyright © 2016 Jeannette Y. Lee et al. All rights reserved. Screening of Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders Using Exfoliative Cytology: A Diagnostic Modality Sun, 18 Sep 2016 11:42:09 +0000 Objective. Oral exfoliative cytology (OEC) has been implemented in the diagnosis of pathologic lesions for ages. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the cytomorphological features of some of the commonest potentially malignant disorders (leukoplakia, lichen planus, and oral submucous fibrosis) through a simple procedure and illustrate its importance in mass screening. Materials and Method. A total of 160 subjects with 25–50 years of age were included in the study. Among them, 40 were clinically diagnosed with oral leukoplakia, 40 were diagnosed with oral lichen planus, 40 were diagnosed with oral submucous fibrosis, and 40 were in the control group. The prepared smears were subjected to Papanicolaou stain and analyzed microscopically for the evaluation of the cytomorphological features. Results and Discussion. When analyzed microscopically, 36 (90%) out of the 40 oral leukoplakic lesions showed Class II cytological features whereas 4 (10%) revealed Class I features. Among 40 patients with oral lichen planus, 26 (65%) showed Class II features while the remaining 14 (35%) revealed Class I features. In 40 subjects with oral submucous fibrosis, 32 (80%) showed Class II features while the other 8 (20%) showed Class I features. All the 40 control subjects showed Class I features. Thus, OEC can be widely advocated as an addition to clinical conclusion and an adjunct to biopsy. Arpita Kabiraj, Tanya Khaitan, Debarati Bhowmick, Uday Ginjupally, Aritri Bir, and Kushal Chatterjee Copyright © 2016 Arpita Kabiraj et al. All rights reserved. Breast Cancer Prevalence and Mortality among Hispanic Subgroups in the United States, 2009–2013 Thu, 08 Sep 2016 18:10:27 +0000 Background. This paper presents data on breast cancer prevalence and mortality among US Hispanics and Hispanic subgroups, including Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Central American, and South American. Methods. Five-year average annual female breast cancer prevalence and mortality rates for 2009–2013 were examined using data from the National Health Interview Survey (prevalence) and the National Center for Health Statistics and the American Community Survey (mortality rates). Results. Overall breast cancer prevalence among US Hispanic women was 1.03%. Although the estimates varied slightly by Hispanic subgroup, these differences were not statistically significant. The breast cancer mortality rate for Hispanics overall was 17.71 per 100,000 women. Higher rates were observed among Cubans (17.89), Mexicans (18.78), and Puerto Ricans (19.04), and a lower rate was observed among Central and South Americans (10.15). With the exception of the rate for Cubans, all Hispanic subgroup rates were statistically significantly different from the overall Hispanic rate. Additionally, all Hispanic subgroups rates were statistically significantly higher than the Central and South American rate. Conclusion. The data reveal significant differences in mortality across Hispanic subgroups. These data enable public health officials to develop targeted interventions to help lower breast cancer mortality among the highest risk populations. Bijou R. Hunt Copyright © 2016 Bijou R. Hunt. All rights reserved. Coffee Consumption and the Incidence of Colorectal Cancer in Women Thu, 28 Apr 2016 13:14:13 +0000 Background. Higher coffee consumption has been associated with decreased incidence of colorectal cancer. Our objective was to examine the relationship of coffee intake to colorectal cancer incidence in a large observational cohort of postmenopausal US women. Methods. Data were collected for the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study providing a follow-up period of 12.9 years. The mean age of our sample (,778 women) was 63.5 years. Daily coffee intake was grouped into 3 categories: None, moderate (>0–<4 cups), and high (4+ cups). Proportional hazards modeling was used to evaluate the relationship between coffee intake and colorectal cancer. Results. There were 1,282 (1.53%) new cases of colorectal cancer during follow-up. Compared to nondrinkers, moderate and high coffee drinkers had an increased incidence of colorectal cancer in multivariate analysis (HR 1.15, 1.02–1.29; HR 1.14, 0.93–1.38). Moderate drip brew coffee intake (HR 1.20, 1.05–1.36) and high nondrip brew coffee intake (HR 1.43, 1.01–2.02) were associated with increased odds. Conclusion. Our results suggesting increased incidence of colorectal cancer associated with higher coffee consumption contradict recent meta-analyses but agree with a number of other studies showing that coffee increases risk or has no effect. Brew method results are novel and warrant further research. Erik J. Groessl, Matthew A. Allison, Joseph C. Larson, Samuel B. Ho, Linda G. Snetslaar, Dorothy S. Lane, Katie M. Tharp, and Marcia L. Stefanick Copyright © 2016 Erik J. Groessl et al. All rights reserved. Promoter Methylation and mRNA Expression of Response Gene to Complement 32 in Breast Carcinoma Tue, 29 Mar 2016 12:38:23 +0000 Background. Response gene to complement 32 (RGC32), induced by activation of complements, has been characterized as a cell cycle regulator; however, its role in carcinogenesis is still controversial. In the present study we compared RGC32 promoter methylation patterns and mRNA expression in breast cancerous tissues and adjacent normal tissues. Materials and Methods. Sixty-three breast cancer tissues and 63 adjacent nonneoplastic tissues were included in our study. Design. Nested methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (Nested-MSP) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) were used to determine RGC32 promoter methylation status and its mRNA expression levels, respectively. Results. RGC32 methylation pattern was not different between breast cancerous tissue and adjacent nonneoplastic tissue (OR = 2.30, 95% CI = 0.95–5.54). However, qPCR analysis displayed higher levels of RGC32 mRNA in breast cancerous tissues than in noncancerous tissues (1.073 versus 0.959; ), irrespective of the promoter methylation status. The expression levels and promoter methylation of RGC32 were not correlated with any of patients’ clinical characteristics (). Conclusion. Our findings confirmed upregulation of RGC32 in breast cancerous tumors, but it was not associated with promoter methylation patterns. Ebrahim Eskandari-Nasab, Mohammad Hashemi, and Firoozeh Rafighdoost Copyright © 2016 Ebrahim Eskandari-Nasab et al. All rights reserved. The Influences of Health Insurance and Access to Information on Prostate Cancer Screening among Men in Dominican Republic Thu, 10 Mar 2016 08:42:10 +0000 Objectives. Although research demonstrates the public health burden of prostate cancer among men in the Caribbean, relatively little is known about the factors that underlie the low levels of testing for the disease among this population. Study Design. A cross-sectional study of prostate cancer testing behaviours among men aged 40–60 years in Dominican Republic using the Demographic and Health Survey (2013). Methods. We use hierarchical binary logit regression models and average treatment effects combined with propensity score matching to explore the determinants of prostate screening as well as the average effect of health insurance coverage on screening. The use of hierarchical binary logit regression enabled us to control for the effect of unobserved heterogeneity at the cluster level that may affect prostate cancer testing behaviours. Results. Screening varied significantly with health insurance coverage, knowledge of cholesterol level, education, and wealth. Insured men were more likely to test for prostate cancer (OR = 1.65, ) compared to the uninsured. Conclusions. The expansion and restructuring of Dominican Republic universal health insurance scheme to ensure equity in access may improve health access that would potentially impact positively on prostate cancer screening among men. Joseph Kangmennaang and Isaac Luginaah Copyright © 2016 Joseph Kangmennaang and Isaac Luginaah. All rights reserved. Prostate Cancer Screening in Jamaica: Results of the Largest National Screening Clinic Mon, 29 Feb 2016 16:49:07 +0000 Prostate cancer is highly prevalent in Jamaica and is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Our aim was to evaluate the patterns of screening in the largest organized screening clinic in Jamaica at the Jamaica Cancer Society. A retrospective analysis of all men presenting for screening at the Jamaica Cancer Society from 1995 to 2005 was done. All patients had digital rectal examinations (DRE) and prostate specific antigen (PSA) tests done. Results of prostate biopsies were noted. 1117 men of mean age 59.9 ± 8.2 years presented for screening. The median documented PSA was 1.6 ng/mL (maximum of 5170 ng/mL). Most patients presented for only 1 screen. There was a gradual reduction in the mean age of presentation for screening over the period. Prostate biopsies were requested on 11% of screening visits; however, only 59% of these were done. 5.6% of all persons screened were found to have cancer. Of the cancers diagnosed, Gleason 6 adenocarcinoma was the commonest grade and median PSA was 8.9 ng/mL (range 1.5–1059 ng/mL). Older men tend to screen for prostate cancer in Jamaica. However, compliance with regular maintenance visits and requests for confirmatory biopsies are poor. Screening needs intervention in the Jamaican population. Belinda F. Morrison, William Aiken, Richard Mayhew, Yulit Gordon, and Marvin Reid Copyright © 2016 Belinda F. Morrison et al. All rights reserved. What Prevents Men Aged 40–64 Years from Prostate Cancer Screening in Namibia? Sun, 10 Jan 2016 14:07:45 +0000 Objectives. Although a growing body of evidence demonstrates the public health burden of prostate cancer in SSA, relatively little is known about the underlying factors surrounding the low levels of testing for the disease in the context of this region. Using Namibia Demographic Health Survey dataset (NDHS, 2013), we examined the factors that influence men’s decision to screen for prostate cancer in Namibia. Methods. We use complementary log-log regression models to explore the determinants of screening for prostate cancer. We also corrected for the effect of unobserved heterogeneity that may affect screening behaviours at the cluster level. Results. The results show that health insurance coverage (OR = 2.95, ) is an important predictor of screening for prostate cancer in Namibia. In addition, higher education and discussing reproductive issues with a health worker (OR = 2.02, ) were more likely to screening for prostate cancer. Conclusions. A universal health insurance scheme may be necessary to increase uptake of prostate cancer screening. However it needs to be acknowledged that expanded screening can have negative consequences and any allocation of scarce resources towards screening must be guided by evidence obtained from the local context about the costs and benefits of screening. Joseph Kangmennaang, Paul Mkandawire, and Isaac Luginaah Copyright © 2016 Joseph Kangmennaang et al. All rights reserved. Determinants of Cervical Cancer Screening Uptake among Women in Ilorin, North Central Nigeria: A Community-Based Study Wed, 06 Jan 2016 12:20:36 +0000 Introduction. Cancer of the cervix is the leading cause of cancer deaths among women in developing countries. Screening is one of the most cost effective control strategies for the disease. This study assessed the determinants of cervical cancer screening uptake among Nigerian women. Methodology. This cross-sectional study was conducted using multistage sampling technique among 338 participants in Ilorin, North Central Nigeria. A pretested questionnaire was used for data collection and data analysis was done using SPSS version 21. Chi-square test was used for bivariate analysis while binary logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis. Statistical significance was set at . Results. Only 8.0% of the respondents had ever been screened for cancer of the cervix. The proportion of women who had ever been screened was significantly higher among those who demonstrated positive attitude to screening (81.5%, ), respondents who were aware of the disease (100.0%, ), and those who were aware of cervical cancer screening (88.9%, ). Respondents who had negative attitude had 63% lesser odds of being screened compared to those who had positive attitudes towards screening (AOR; 0.37, 95% CI; 0.01–0.28). Conclusion. There is urgent need to improve the knowledge base and attitude of Nigerian women to enhance cervical cancer screening uptake among them. Ajibola Idowu, Samuel Anu Olowookere, Aderonke Tolulope Fagbemi, and Olumuyiwa Ayotunde Ogunlaja Copyright © 2016 Ajibola Idowu et al. All rights reserved. The Prevalence of HIV in Cancer Patients at the Surgical Oncology Unit of Donka University Hospital of Conakry (Guinea) Thu, 03 Dec 2015 12:53:20 +0000 Aim. To determine the prevalence of HIV infection among patients seen at the surgical oncology unit of Donka (Conakry, Guinea). Method. We conducted a retrospective and descriptive study of HIV infection in cancer patients from May 2007 to December 2012. Social characteristics (age, gender, marital status, and education) and immune status (HIV type, CD4 count) were reviewed. Results. Out of 2598 cancer patients, 54 (2.1%) tested positive for HIV. There were 11 (20.4%) defining AIDS and 43 (79.6%) nondefining AIDS cancers. The most frequent cancers were breast (14) (26.0%), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (6) (11.1%), liver (6) (11.1%), eye and annexes (6) (11.1%), and cervical cancer (5) (9.3%). These patients were female in 34 (63.0%) and had a median age of 39 years and body mass index was 20,3 Kg/m2. They were unschooled in 40 (74.1%) and married in 35 (64.8%). CD4 count showed a median of 317 cells/mL. Antiretroviral treatment was performed in 40 (74.1%). Conclusion. HIV prevalence is higher in patients in our unit of surgical oncology. Breast cancer was the most common in this association. A national survey of a large sample is needed to determine the true prevalence and impact of HIV on cancer prognosis. Bangaly Traore, Thierno Souleymane Bah, Fode Amara Traore, Mamadou Saliou Sow, Solomana Diane, Mamady Keita, Mohamed Cisse, Moussa Koulibaly, and Naby Daouda Camara Copyright © 2015 Bangaly Traore et al. All rights reserved. Patterns of Benign and Malignant Lesions of the Thyroid in Two Wilayahs of Northeastern Algeria Sun, 22 Nov 2015 14:21:34 +0000 The aim of this study is to compare histological patterns and to estimate the burden of thyroid cancers in the two Wilayahs (departments) of El-Taref and Guelma in northeast of Algeria (total population 0.9 million), locally reputed as having different rates of endemic thyroid diseases and cancer. A retrospective analysis of central pathology registers and clinical records of patients with thyroid diseases, covering the period 2008–2012, was conducted. A total of 145 cases of thyroid cancers with histological confirmation were registered in the two Wilayahs during the period, with a female to male ratio of 5.9 : 1. Estimates of crude incidence rates suggested that thyroid cancers were twice as frequent in the Wilayah of Guelma compared to El-Taref () with a tendency to occur at a younger age in resident of the Wilayah of El-Taref. Diagnoses of thyroid adenoma were more frequent in the Wilayah of Guelma, whereas the prevalence of other thyroid lesions, including goitre, was similar in the two Wilayahs. This first descriptive study on geographic variations in thyroid cancer in Northern Africa suggests that significant differences may occur in relation with environmental and lifestyle exposures. Mona Guidoum, Hind Kherfi-Kadi, Ouahiba Benharkat-Boughaba, Aicha Djemaa-Bendjazia, Sihem Keghouche, Behnoush Abedi-Ardekani, Amina Azzouz, Yacine Kadi, Pierre Hainaut, and Zihad Bouslama Copyright © 2015 Mona Guidoum et al. All rights reserved. Traditional Dietary Pattern Increases Risk of Prostate Cancer in Argentina: Results of a Multilevel Modeling and Bias Analysis from a Case-Control Study Mon, 16 Nov 2015 13:15:43 +0000 There is increasing evidence that dietary habits play a role in prostate cancer (PC) occurrence. Argentinean cancer risk studies require additional attention because of the singular dietary pattern of this population. A case-control study (147 PC cases, 300 controls) was conducted in Córdoba (Argentina) throughout 2008–2013. A principal component factor analysis was performed to identify dietary patterns. A mixed logistic regression model was applied, taking into account family history of cancer. Possible bias was evaluated by probabilistic bias analysis. Four dietary patterns were identified: Traditional (fatty red meats, offal, processed meat, starchy vegetables, added sugars and sweets, candies, fats, and vegetable oils), Prudent (nonstarchy vegetables, whole grains), Carbohydrate (sodas/juices and bakery products), and Cheese (cheeses). High adherence to the Traditional (OR 2.82, 95%CI: 1.569–5.099) and Carbohydrate Patterns (OR 2.14, 95%CI: 1.470–3.128) showed a promoting effect for PC, whereas the Prudent and Cheese Patterns were independent factors. PC occurrence was also associated with family history of PC. Bias adjusted ORs indicate that the validity of the present study is acceptable. High adherence to characteristic Argentinean dietary patterns was associated with increased PC risk. Our results incorporate original contributions to knowledge about scenarios in South American dietary patterns and PC occurrence. Camila Niclis, María D. Román, Alberto R. Osella, Aldo R. Eynard, and María del Pilar Díaz Copyright © 2015 Camila Niclis et al. All rights reserved. Incidence of Gastric Cancer in Marrakech and Casablanca, Morocco Wed, 21 Oct 2015 11:39:34 +0000 Gastric cancer is the fifth most common cancer globally with over 70% of new cases occurring in developing countries. In Morocco, oncologists in Marrakech suspected higher frequency of gastric cancer compared to Casablanca, a city 150 kilometers away. This study calculated age-specific, sex-specific, and total incidence rates of gastric cancer in Marrakech and was compared to the Casablanca population-based cancer registry. Using medical records from Center Hospital University Mohammad VI and reports from 4 main private pathology laboratories in Marrakech, we identified 774 patients for the period 2008–2012. Comparison of rates showed higher age-specific incidence in Marrakech in nearly all age groups for both genders. A higher total incidence in Marrakech than in Casablanca was found with rates of 5.50 and 3.23 per 100,000, respectively. Incidence was significantly higher among males in Marrakech than males in Casablanca (7.19 and 3.91 per 100,000, resp.) and females in Marrakech compared to females in Casablanca (3.87 and 2.58 per 100,000, resp.). Future studies should address possible underestimation of gastric cancer in Marrakech, estimate incidence in other regions of Morocco, and investigate possible risk factors to explain the difference in rates. Brittney L. Smith, Mouna Khouchani, Mehdi Karkouri, Audrey J. Lazenby, Katherine Watkins, Ali Tahri, Abdel-Latif Benider, Shireen Rajaram, and Amr S. Soliman Copyright © 2015 Brittney L. Smith et al. All rights reserved. Occupational Exposure to Diesel Motor Exhaust and Lung Cancer: A Dose-Response Relationship Hidden by Asbestos Exposure Adjustment? The ICARE Study Thu, 03 Sep 2015 07:18:42 +0000 Background. In a French large population-based case-control study we investigated the dose-response relationship between lung cancer and occupational exposure to diesel motor exhaust (DME), taking into account asbestos exposure. Methods. Exposure to DME was assessed by questionnaire. Asbestos was taken into account through a global indicator of exposure to occupational carcinogens or by a specific JEM. Results. We found a crude dose response relationship with most of the indicators of DME exposure, including with the cumulative exposure index. All results were affected by adjustment for asbestos exposure. The dose response relationships between DME and lung cancer were observed among subjects never exposed to asbestos. Conclusions. Exposure to DME and to asbestos is frequently found among the same subjects, which may explain why dose-response relationships in previous studies that adjusted for asbestos exposure were inconsistent. Mireille Matrat, Florence Guida, Sylvie Cénée, Joelle Févotte, Matthieu Carton, Diane Cyr, Gwenn Menvielle, Sophie Paget-Bailly, Loredana Radoï, Annie Schmaus, Simona Bara, Michel Velten, Danièle Luce, Isabelle Stücker, and The Icare Study Group Copyright © 2015 Mireille Matrat et al. All rights reserved. The Influence of Socioeconomic Status on Racial/Ethnic Disparities among the ER/PR/HER2 Breast Cancer Subtypes Mon, 03 Aug 2015 11:16:16 +0000 Background. The eight ER/PR/HER2 breast cancer subtypes vary widely in demographic and clinicopathologic characteristics and survival. This study assesses the contribution of SES to the risk of mortality for blacks, Hispanics, Asian/Pacific Islanders, and American Indians when compared with white women for each ER/PR/HER2 subtype. Methods. We identified 143,184 cases of first primary female invasive breast cancer from the California Cancer Registry between 2000 and 2012. The risk of mortality was computed for each race/ethnicity within each ER/PR/HER2 subtype. Models were adjusted for tumor grade, year of diagnosis, and age. SES was added to a second set of models. Analyses were conducted separately for each stage. Results. Race/ethnicity did not contribute to the risk of mortality for any subtype in stage 1 when adjusted for SES. In stages 2, 3, and 4, race/ethnicity was associated with risk of mortality and adjustment for SES changed the risk only in some subtypes. SES reduced the risk of mortality by over 45% for American Indians with stage 2 ER+/PR+/HER2− cancer, but it decreased the risk of mortality for blacks with stage 2 triple negative cancer by less than 4%. Conclusions. Racial/ethnic disparities do not exist in all ER/PR/HER2 subtypes and, in general, SES modestly alters these disparities. Carol A. Parise and Vincent Caggiano Copyright © 2015 Carol A. Parise and Vincent Caggiano. All rights reserved. Serum IGFBP-2 and Risk of Atypical Hyperplasia of the Breast Thu, 28 May 2015 11:24:50 +0000 Atypical hyperplasia of the breast (AH) is associated with increased risk of subsequent invasive breast cancer, yet little is known about the etiology of AH. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (IGFBP-2) may contribute to the development of AH due to its proliferative effects on mammary tissue. We conducted a nested case-control study of postmenopausal women enrolled in Women’s Health Initiative-Clinical Trial. Cases were 275 women who developed incident AH during follow-up, individually (1 : 1) matched to controls. Levels of IGFBP-2 were determined from fasting serum collected at baseline. Multivariable conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios for the association of IGFBP-2 with risk of AH. Serum IGFBP-2 was associated with a nonsignificant decrease in risk for AH, when comparing the highest quartile to lowest quartile (OR = 0.65; 95% CI = 0.32–1.31). This decrease in risk was most evident when analyses were restricted to nondiabetic, nonusers of hormone therapy (OR = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.13–0.86, ptrend = 0.06) and nondiabetic women who were overweight or obese (OR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.18–1.03, ptrend = 0.05). Results from this study provide some support for an inverse association between serum IGFBP2 levels and risk of AH, particularly in nondiabetic women who are overweight or obese. Further studies are required to confirm these results. Chelsea Catsburg, Marc J. Gunter, Lesley Tinker, Rowan T. Chlebowski, Michael Pollak, Howard D. Strickler, Michele L. Cote, David L. Page, and Thomas E. Rohan Copyright © 2015 Chelsea Catsburg et al. All rights reserved. Impact of Diabetes Status and Medication on Presentation, Treatment, and Outcome of Stage II Colon Cancer Patients Tue, 05 May 2015 09:11:03 +0000 Diabetes is a risk factor for colorectal cancer and several reports suggest worse cancer-specific outcomes in diabetes patients. Recent studies in multiple tumour types indicate metformin may positively impact on cancer-specific and overall survival. A population-based series of stage II colorectal cancer patients treated and followed from 2000 to 2013 were analysed for baseline characteristics, treatment, and outcomes. 1116 patients with stage II colon cancer were identified, 55.5% were male and median age was 70.9 years (range 20.5–101.2). The diabetes patients (21.6%, n = 241) were older than nondiabetes patients (median 74.0 versus 69.6, p = 0.0001). There was no impact of diabetes on cancer presentation or pathology. Diabetes patients were less likely to receive adjuvant treatment (13.7 versus 24.8%, p = 0.002) but were equally likely to complete treatment (69.7 versus 67.7%, p = 1.00). Diabetes did not significantly impact cancer recurrence (HR = 1.07, 95% CI 0.71–1.63) or overall survival (HR = 1.23, 95% CI 0.88–1.72), adjusted for age. Diabetes medication did not impact cancer recurrence or survival. Cancer presentation and outcomes in diabetes patients are comparable to those of nondiabetes patients in those with stage II colon cancer. The effect of metformin merits further evaluation in patients with colon cancer. Susie Bae, Hui-Li Wong, Jeanne Tie, Jayesh Desai, Kathryn Field, Suzanne Kosmider, Spiros Fourlanos, Ian Jones, Iain Skinner, and Peter Gibbs Copyright © 2015 Susie Bae et al. All rights reserved. Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Clinicopathologic Features and Survival Outcomes in Asian Pacific Islanders Residing in the United States: A SEER Analysis Thu, 15 Jan 2015 11:39:18 +0000 Background. The objective of our study was to ascertain racial/ethnic disparities in Asian/Pacific Islanders (API) for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) clinicopathologic features and survival outcomes based on various tumor characteristics and treatment modalities. Method. SEER database identified invasive NSCLC cases from 2004 to 2010. Variables included American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage 7, tumor grade, tumor size, histology, age, marital status, radiation, surgery, and reason for no surgery. The Kruskall-Wallis test and the test were used to examine differences between races/ethnicities and the referent, non-Hispanic white (NHW). Multivariate Cox proportional analyses were used to establish the weight of the prognostic significance contributing to disease-specific survival (DSS) in each AJCC stage. Result. Improved DSS was seen in API across stage I (HR: 0.78), stage II (HR: 0.79), and stage IV (HR: 0.86), respectively, compared to the referent NHW (). Prognosis was improved by being married, being female gender, AIS histology, and birth outside the US (). Conclusion. We have demonstrated improved survival among API in early stage and stage IV NSCLC. Further research is necessary to clarify the role of lifestyle and tumor biology for these differences. Muhammad Saad Hamid, Raji Shameem, Khalid Gafoor, Jason George, Bushra Mina, and Kevin Sullivan Copyright © 2015 Muhammad Saad Hamid et al. All rights reserved. Colorectal Cancer in Iran: Molecular Epidemiology and Screening Strategies Thu, 15 Jan 2015 11:09:59 +0000 Purpose. The increasing incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in the past three decades in Iran has made it a major public health burden. This study aimed to report its epidemiologic features, molecular genetic aspects, survival, heredity, and screening pattern in Iran. Methods. A comprehensive literature review was conducted to identify the relevant published articles. We used medical subject headings, including colorectal cancer, molecular genetics, KRAS and BRAF mutations, screening, survival, epidemiologic study, and Iran. Results. Age standardized incidence rate of Iranian CRCs was 11.6 and 10.5 for men and women, respectively. Overall five-year survival rate was 41%, and the proportion of CRC among the younger age group was higher than that of western countries. Depending on ethnicity, geographical region, dietary, and genetic predisposition, mutation genes were considerably diverse and distinct among CRCs across Iran. The high occurrence of CRC in records of relatives of CRC patients showed that family history of CRC was more common among young CRCs. Conclusion. Appropriate screening strategies for CRC which is amenable to early detection through screening, especially in relatives of CRCs, should be considered as the first step in CRC screening programs. Roya Dolatkhah, Mohammad Hossein Somi, Mortaza Jabbarpour Bonyadi, Iraj Asvadi Kermani, Faris Farassati, and Saeed Dastgiri Copyright © 2015 Roya Dolatkhah et al. All rights reserved. The Relationship between Eating and Lifestyle Habits and Cancer in Van Lake Region: Another Endemic Region for Esophageal and Gastric Cancers Wed, 14 Jan 2015 13:49:44 +0000 Purpose. To examine the relationship between esophageal and gastric cancers commonly seen in Van Lake region and the traditional eating habits of the geography. Materials and Methods. Esophageal and gastric cancer cases, who underwent surgery between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2013, were examined. Pathology reports of the patients and presence of Helicobacter pylori (HP) were recorded. Surveys were filled by face to face meeting or telephone call. Control group was created with randomly selected individuals without any cancer diagnosis having age, gender, and socioeconomic characteristics similar to patient group. All data were analyzed using SAS.9.3 statistical programme. Results. Compared with the control group, herby cheese consumption (a component of eating habits) and smoking were significantly higher in the patient group (). Tandoor exposure is compared in terms of female gender, and significant difference was found between the groups (). As a result of the analysis with logistic regression more than 150 gr of herby cheese consumption per day was found to increase the cancer risk (odds ratio 1.017; 95% CI: 1.012–1.022). Conclusion. A high consumption of herby cheese, cooking bread on tandoor, and heavy smoking were seen to be important risk factors for esophageal and gastric cancers. Sebahattin Celik, E. Murat Yılmaz, Ferhat Özden, Cetin Kotan, and Hayrettin Okut Copyright © 2015 Sebahattin Celik et al. All rights reserved. Increase in Distant Stage Breast Cancer Incidence Rates in US Women Aged 25–49 Years, 2000–2011: The Stage Migration Hypothesis Thu, 08 Jan 2015 08:28:36 +0000 Background. Unexplained increases have been reported in incidence rates for breast cancer diagnosed at distant stage in younger U.S. women, using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program. Methods. This report focused on recent SEER trends (2000–2011) in age-standardized incidence rates of invasive breast cancer at ages 25–39 and 40–49 years and the hypothesis that stage migration may have resulted from advances in detecting distant metastases at diagnosis. Results. Increases in the rates for distant stage were roughly equal to decreases in the rates for the most advanced stage subgroups within regional stage; this was evident for estrogen receptor (ER) negative cancers, associated with poorer prognosis, but not for ER positive cancers. The 3-year relative survival rate increased over time for distant stage (especially in the ER positive subgroup) and regional stage but not for localized stage; these trends do not contradict the stage-migration hypothesis. Conclusions. Findings provide some support for stage migration as one explanation for the recent increase in incidence of distant stage breast cancer, but additional studies are needed using other databases. Anthony P. Polednak Copyright © 2015 Anthony P. Polednak. All rights reserved. Cancer Mortality Pattern in Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria Mon, 05 Jan 2015 07:23:29 +0000 Background. Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and about 70% of all cancer deaths occurred in low- and middle-income countries. The cancer mortality pattern is quite different in Africa compared to other parts of the world. Extensive literature research showed little or no information about the overall deaths attributable to cancer in Nigeria. Aims and Objectives. This study aims at providing data on the patterns of cancer deaths in our center using the hospital and autopsy death registers. Methodology. Demographic, clinical data of patients who died of cancer were extracted from death registers in the wards and mortuary over a period of 14 years (2000–2013). Results. A total of 1436 (4.74%) cancer deaths out of 30287 deaths recorded during the period. The male to female ratio was 1 : 2.2 and the peak age of death was between 51 and 60 years. Overall, breast cancer was responsible for most of the deaths. Conclusion. The study shows that the cancers that accounted for majority of death occurred in organs that were accessible to screening procedures and not necessary for survival. We advise regular screening for precancerous lesions in these organs so as to reduce the mortality rate and burden of cancer. Olakanmi Ralph Akinde, Adekoyejo Abiodun Phillips, Olubanji Ajibola Oguntunde, and Olatunji Michael Afolayan Copyright © 2015 Olakanmi Ralph Akinde et al. All rights reserved. Incidence and Outcomes of Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor: Results from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Database Wed, 05 Nov 2014 08:14:07 +0000 Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a rare but highly fatal malignancy. Due to the rarity of this neoplasm, no large population based studies exist. Procedure. This is a retrospective cohort analysis. Incidence rates were calculated based on sex and ethnicity and compared statistically. Gender-, ethnicity-, and treatment- based survival were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results. A total of 192 cases of DSRCT were identified. Peak incidence age was between 20 and 24 years. Age-adjusted incidence rate for blacks was 0.5 cases/million and for whites was 0.2 cases/million (). There was no statistically significant difference in survival based on gender or ethnicity. When adjusted for age, there was no statistically significant difference in survival amongst patients who received radiation therapy compared to those who did not (HRadj = 0.73; 95% CI 0.49, 1.11). There was a statistically significant survival advantage for patients who received radiation after surgery compared to those who did not (HR 0.49; 95% CI 0.30, 0.79). Conclusion. DSRCT is more common in males and in people of African-American descent. Although overall survival remains poor, radiation therapy following surgery seems to improve outcome in these patients. Christina K. Lettieri, Pamela Garcia-Filion, and Pooja Hingorani Copyright © 2014 Christina K. Lettieri et al. All rights reserved. Cancer Incidence in Egypt: Results of the National Population-Based Cancer Registry Program Sun, 21 Sep 2014 08:29:46 +0000 Background. This paper aims to present cancer incidence rates at national and regional level of Egypt, based upon results of National Cancer Registry Program (NCRP). Methods. NCRP stratified Egypt into 3 geographical strata: lower, middle, and upper. One governorate represented each region. Abstractors collected data from medical records of cancer centers, national tertiary care institutions, Health Insurance Organization, Government-Subsidized Treatment Program, and death records. Data entry was online. Incidence rates were calculated at a regional and a national level. Future projection up to 2050 was also calculated. Results. Age-standardized incidence rates per 100,000 were 166.6 (both sexes), 175.9 (males), and 157.0 (females). Commonest sites were liver (23.8%), breast (15.4%), and bladder (6.9%) (both sexes): liver (33.6%) and bladder (10.7%) among men, and breast (32.0%) and liver (13.5%) among women. By 2050, a 3-fold increase in incident cancer relative to 2013 was estimated. Conclusion. These data are the only available cancer rates at national and regional levels of Egypt. The pattern of cancer indicated the increased burden of liver cancer. Breast cancer occupied the second rank. Study of rates of individual sites of cancer might help in giving clues for preventive programs. Amal S. Ibrahim, Hussein M. Khaled, Nabiel NH Mikhail, Hoda Baraka, and Hossam Kamel Copyright © 2014 Amal S. Ibrahim et al. All rights reserved.