Table of Contents
Journal of Ceramics
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 350931, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/350931
Research Article

Effect of Anodic Current Density on Characteristics and Low Temperature IR Emissivity of Ceramic Coating on Aluminium 6061 Alloy Prepared by Microarc Oxidation

1Ph.D. Program in Engineering Science, College of Engineering, Chung Hua University, Hsinchu 30012, Taiwan
2College of Engineering, Chung Hua University, Hsinchu 30012, Taiwan

Received 8 June 2013; Revised 7 November 2013; Accepted 10 November 2013

Academic Editor: Baolin Wang

Copyright © 2013 Mohannad M. S. Al Bosta et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. K. A. Shati, S. G. Blakey, and S. B. M. Beck, “The effect of surface roughness and emissivity on radiator output,” Energy and Buildings, vol. 43, no. 2-3, pp. 400–406, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. S.-H. Yu, D. Jang, and K.-S. Lee, “Effect of radiation in a radial heat sink under natural convection,” International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 55, no. 1-3, pp. 505–509, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. F. Mécuson, T. Czerwiec, T. Belmonte, L. Dujardin, A. Viola, and G. Henrion, “Diagnostics of an electrolytic microarc process for aluminium alloy oxidation,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 200, no. 1-4, pp. 804–808, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. S. Stojadinovic, R. Vasilic, I. Belca et al., “Characterization of the plasma electrolytic oxidation of aluminium in sodium tungstate,” Corrosion Science, vol. 52, no. 10, pp. 3258–3265, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. Z. Wang, L. Wu, Y. Qi, W. Cai, and Z. Jiang, “Self-lubricating Al2O3/PTFE composite coating formation on surface of aluminium alloy,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 204, no. 20, pp. 3315–3318, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. R. H. U. Khan, A. Yerokhin, X. Li, H. Dong, and A. Matthews, “Surface characterisation of DC plasma electrolytic oxidation treated 6082 aluminium alloy: effect of current density and electrolyte concentration,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 205, no. 6, pp. 1679–1688, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. L. O. Snizhko, A. L. Yerokhin, A. Pilkington et al., “Anodic processes in plasma electrolytic oxidation of aluminium in alkaline solutions,” Electrochimica Acta, vol. 49, no. 13, pp. 2085–2095, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. S.-M. Moon and S.-I. Pyun, “The corrosion of pure aluminium during cathodic polarization in aqueous solutions,” Corrosion Science, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 399–408, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. L. Wen, Y. Wang, Y. Zhou, J.-H. Ouyang, L. Guo, and D. Jia, “Corrosion evaluation of microarc oxidation coatings formed on 2024 aluminium alloy,” Corrosion Science, vol. 52, no. 8, pp. 2687–2696, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. J. R. Morlidge, P. Skeldon, G. E. Thompson, H. Habazaki, K. Shimizu, and G. C. Wood, “Gel formation and the efficiency of anodic film growth on aluminium,” Electrochimica Acta, vol. 44, no. 14, pp. 2423–2435, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. P. I. Butyagin, Y. V. Khokhryakov, and A. I. Mamaev, “Microplasma systems for creating coatings on aluminium alloys,” Materials Letters, vol. 57, no. 11, pp. 1748–1751, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. J. Jovović, S. Stojadinović, N. M. Šišović, and N. Konjević, “Spectroscopic characterization of plasma during electrolytic oxidation (PEO) of aluminium,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 206, pp. 24–28, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  13. A. L. Yerokhin, L. O. Snizhko, N. L. Gurevina, A. Leyland, A. Pilkington, and A. Matthews, “Spatial characteristics of discharge phenomena in plasma electrolytic oxidation of aluminium alloy,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 177-178, pp. 779–783, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. T. Abdulla, A. Yerokhin, and R. Goodall, “Effect of Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation coating on the specific strength of open-cell aluminium foams,” Materials and Design, vol. 32, no. 7, pp. 3742–3749, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. A. L. Yerokhin, A. A. Voevodin, V. V. Lyubimov, J. Zabinski, and M. Donley, “Plasma electrolytic fabrication of oxide ceramic surface layers for tribotechnical purposes on aluminium alloys,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 110, no. 3, pp. 140–146, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. E. Matykina, R. Arrabal, P. Skeldon, G. E. Thompson, and P. Belenguer, “AC PEO of aluminium with porous alumina precursor films,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 205, no. 6, pp. 1668–1678, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. S. V. Gnedenkov, O. A. Khrisanfova, A. G. Zavidnaya et al., “Production of hard and heat-resistant coatings on aluminium using a plasma micro-discharge,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 123, no. 1, pp. 24–28, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. M. Treviño, N. F. Garza-Montes-de-Oca, A. Pérez, M. A. L. Hernández-Rodríguez, A. Juárez, and R. Colás, “Wear of an aluminium alloy coated by plasma electrolytic oxidation,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 206, no. 8-9, pp. 2213–2219, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  19. T. S. Lim, H. S. Ryu, and S.-H. Hong, “Electrochemical corrosion properties of CeO2-containing coatings on AZ31 magnesium alloys prepared by plasma electrolytic oxidation,” Corrosion Science, vol. 62, pp. 104–111, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  20. A. V. Timoshenko and Y. V. Magurova, “Investigation of plasma electrolytic oxidation processes of magnesium alloy MA2-1 under pulse polarisation modes,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 199, no. 2-3, pp. 135–140, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. Liang, P. B. Srinivasan, C. Blawert, and W. Dietzel, “Comparison of electrochemical corrosion behaviour of MgO and ZrO2 coatings on AM50 magnesium alloy formed by plasma electrolytic oxidation,” Corrosion Science, vol. 51, no. 10, pp. 2483–2492, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. F. Liu, D. Shan, Y. Song, E.-H. Han, and W. Ke, “Corrosion behavior of the composite ceramic coating containing zirconium oxides on AM30 magnesium alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation,” Corrosion Science, vol. 53, no. 11, pp. 3845–3852, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. G.-H. Lv, H. Chen, L. Li et al., “Investigation of plasma electrolytic oxidation process on AZ91D magnesium alloy,” Current Applied Physics, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 126–130, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. P. Bala Srinivasan, R. Zettler, C. Blawert, and W. Dietzel, “A study on the effect of plasma electrolytic oxidation on the stress corrosion cracking behaviour of a wrought AZ61 magnesium alloy and its friction stir weldment,” Materials Characterization, vol. 60, no. 5, pp. 389–396, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. P. Zhang, X. Nie, H. Hu, and Y. Liu, “TEM analysis and tribological properties of Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) coatings on a magnesium engine AJ62 alloy,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 205, no. 5, pp. 1508–1514, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. F. Liu, D. Shan, Y. Song, and E.-H. Han, “Effect of additives on the properties of plasma electrolytic oxidation coatings formed on AM50 magnesium alloy in electrolytes containing K2ZrF6,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 206, no. 2-3, pp. 455–463, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. P. Wang, J. Li, Y. Guo, and Z. Yang, “Growth process and corrosion resistance of ceramic coatings of micro-arc oxidation on Mg-Gd-Y magnesium alloys,” Journal of Rare Earths, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 798–802, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. J. Liang, L. Hu, and J. Hao, “Characterization of microarc oxidation coatings formed on AM60B magnesium alloy in silicate and phosphate electrolytes,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 253, no. 10, pp. 4490–4496, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. F. Jin, P. K. Chu, G. Xu, J. Zhao, D. Tang, and H. Tong, “Structure and mechanical properties of magnesium alloy treated by micro-arc discharge oxidation using direct current and high-frequency bipolar pulsing modes,” Materials Science and Engineering A, vol. 435-436, pp. 123–126, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. K. R. Shin, Y. G. Ko, and D. H. Shin, “Effect of electrolyte on surface properties of pure titanium coated by plasma electrolytic oxidation,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 509, supplement 1, pp. S478–S481, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. X. Wang, X. Pan, W. Ye, Y. Wei, and Y. Chen, “Preparation and properties of TiCxN1−x coatings containing calcium on titanium surface by plasma electrolytic carbonitriding,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 228, supplement 1, pp. S194–S197, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  32. D. Wei, Y. Zhou, Y. Wang, and D. Jia, “Characteristic of microarc oxidized coatings on titanium alloy formed in electrolytes containing chelate complex and nano-HA,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 253, no. 11, pp. 5045–5050, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. W. Zhang, K. Du, C. Yan, and F. Wang, “Preparation and characterization of a novel Si-incorporated ceramic film on pure titanium by plasma electrolytic oxidation,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 254, no. 16, pp. 5216–5223, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. K. R. Shin, Y. G. Ko, and D. H. Shin, “Surface characteristics of ZrO2-containing oxide layer in titanium by plasma electrolytic oxidation in K4P2O7 electrolyte,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 536, supplement 1, pp. S226–S230, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. Y. M. Wang, L. X. Guo, J. H. Ouyang, Y. Zhou, and D. C. Jia, “Interface adhesion properties of functional coatings on titanium alloy formed by microarc oxidation method,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 255, no. 15, pp. 6875–6880, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. P. Huang, K.-W. Xu, and Y. Han, “Preparation and apatite layer formation of plasma electrolytic oxidation film on titanium for biomedical application,” Materials Letters, vol. 59, no. 2-3, pp. 185–189, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. Y. Wang, T. Lei, L. Guo, and B. Jiang, “Fretting wear behaviour of microarc oxidation coatings formed on titanium alloy against steel in unlubrication and oil lubrication,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 252, no. 23, pp. 8113–8120, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. S. Stojadinović, R. Vasilić, M. Petković, and L. Zeković, “Plasma electrolytic oxidation of titanium in heteropolytungstate acids,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 206, pp. 575–581, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  39. H. Tang, Q. Sun, T. Xin, C. Yi, Z. Jiang, and F. Wang, “Influence of Co(CH3COO)2 concentration on thermal emissivity of coatings formed on titanium alloy by micro-arc oxidation,” Current Applied Physics, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 284–290, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. S. Cui, J. Han, Y. Du, and W. Li, “Corrosion resistance and wear resistance of plasma electrolytic oxidation coatings on metal matrix composites,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 201, no. 9–11, pp. 5306–5309, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. G. Rapheal, S. Kumar, C. Blawert, and N. B. Dahotre, “Wear behavior of plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) and hybrid coatings of PEO and laser on MRI 230D magnesium alloy,” Wear, vol. 271, no. 9-10, pp. 1987–1997, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. X. Nie, E. I. Meletis, J. C. Jiang, A. Leyland, A. L. Yerokhin, and A. Matthews, “Abrasive wear/corrosion properties and TEM analysis of Al2O3 coatings fabricated using plasma electrolysis,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 149, no. 2-3, pp. 245–251, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. Y. Jiang, Y. Zhang, Y. Bao, and K. Yang, “Sliding wear behaviour of plasma electrolytic oxidation coating on pure aluminium,” Wear, vol. 271, no. 9-10, pp. 1667–1670, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. M. Aliofkhazraei, A. Sabour Rouhaghdam, and T. Shahrabi, “Abrasive wear behaviour of Si3N4/TiO2 nanocomposite coatings fabricated by plasma electrolytic oxidation,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 205, supplement 1, pp. S41–S46, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. T. Wei, F. Yan, and J. Tian, “Characterization and wear- and corrosion-resistance of microarc oxidation ceramic coatings on aluminum alloy,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 389, no. 1-2, pp. 169–176, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. L. Wang, J. Zhou, J. Liang, and J. Chen, “Microstructure and corrosion behavior of plasma electrolytic oxidation coated magnesium alloy pre-treated by laser surface melting,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 206, no. 13, pp. 3109–3115, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. P. Su, X. Wu, Y. Guo, and Z. Jiang, “Effects of cathode current density on structure and corrosion resistance of plasma electrolytic oxidation coatings formed on ZK60 Mg alloy,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 475, no. 1-2, pp. 773–777, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. R. O. Hussein, D. O. Northwood, and X. Nie, “The influence of pulse timing and current mode on the microstructure and corrosion behaviour of a plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coated AM60B magnesium alloy,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 541, pp. 41–48, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  49. L. Rama Krishna, G. Poshal, and G. Sundararajan, “Influence of electrolyte chemistry on morphology and corrosion resistance of micro arc oxidation coatings deposited on magnesium,” Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, vol. 41, no. 13, pp. 3499–3508, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. J. Liang, L. Hu, and J. Hao, “Improvement of corrosion properties of microarc oxidation coating on magnesium alloy by optimizing current density parameters,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 253, no. 16, pp. 6939–6945, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. C. Blawert, V. Heitmann, W. Dietzel, H. M. Nykyforchyn, and M. D. Klapkiv, “Influence of electrolyte on corrosion properties of plasma electrolytic conversion coated magnesium alloys,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 201, no. 21, pp. 8709–8714, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. D. Y. Hwang, Y. M. Kim, D.-Y. Park, B. Yoo, and D. H. Shin, “Corrosion resistance of oxide layers formed on AZ91 Mg alloy in KMnO4 electrolyte by plasma electrolytic oxidation,” Electrochimica Acta, vol. 54, no. 23, pp. 5479–5485, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. Y. M. Wang, B. L. Jiang, T. Q. Lei, and L. X. Guo, “Microarc oxidation coatings formed on Ti6Al4V in Na2SiO3 system solution: microstructure, mechanical and tribological properties,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 201, no. 1-2, pp. 82–89, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. J. Liang, B. Guo, J. Tian, H. Liu, J. Zhou, and T. Xu, “Effect of potassium fluoride in electrolytic solution on the structure and properties of microarc oxidation coatings on magnesium alloy,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 252, no. 2, pp. 345–351, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. Y. Guangliang, L. Xianyi, B. Yizhen, C. Haifeng, and J. Zengsun, “The effects of current density on the phase composition and microstructure properties of micro-arc oxidation coating,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 345, no. 1-2, pp. 196–200, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. C.-C. Tseng, J.-L. Lee, T.-H. Kuo, S.-N. Kuo, and K.-H. Tseng, “The influence of sodium tungstate concentration and anodizing conditions on microarc oxidation (MAO) coatings for aluminum alloy,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 206, no. 16, pp. 3437–3443, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. H. J. Robinson, A. E. Markaki, C. A. Collier, and T. W. Clyne, “Cell adhesion to plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) titania coatings, assessed using a centrifuging technique,” Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, vol. 4, no. 8, pp. 2103–2112, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. S. V. Gnedenkov, O. A. Khrisanfova, A. G. Zavidnaya et al., “Composition and adhesion of protective coatings on aluminum,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 145, no. 1–3, pp. 146–151, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. K. Ramachandran, V. Selvarajan, P. V. Ananthapadmanabhan, and K. P. Sreekumar, “Microstructure, adhesion, microhardness, abrasive wear resistance and electrical resistivity of the plasma sprayed alumina and alumina-titania coatings,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 315, no. 1-2, pp. 144–152, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. Y. Wang, Z. Jiang, and Z. Yao, “Microstructure, bonding strength and thermal shock resistance of ceramic coatings on steels prepared by plasma electrolytic oxidation,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 256, no. 3, pp. 650–656, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. Y. Xu, Z. Yao, F. Jia, Y. Wang, Z. Jiang, and H. Bu, “Preparation of PEO ceramic coating on Ti alloy and its high temperature oxidation resistance,” Current Applied Physics, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 698–702, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. Y. Wang, Z. Jiang, and Z. Yao, “Formation of titania composite coatings on carbon steel by plasma electrolytic oxidation,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 256, no. 20, pp. 5818–5823, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. J. Ding, J. Liang, L. Hu, J. Hao, and Q. Xue, “Effects of sodium tungstate on characteristics of microarc oxidation coatings formed on magnesium alloy in silicate-KOH electrolyte,” Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 244–249, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. M. Tang, H. Liu, W. Li, and L. Zhu, “Effect of zirconia sol in electrolyte on the characteristics of microarc oxidation coating on AZ91D magnesium,” Materials Letters, vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 413–415, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. Q. Cai, L. Wang, B. Wei, and Q. Liu, “Electrochemical performance of microarc oxidation films formed on AZ91D magnesium alloy in silicate and phosphate electrolytes,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 200, no. 12-13, pp. 3727–3733, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. C.-E. Barchiche, E. Rocca, and J. Hazan, “Corrosion behaviour of Sn-containing oxide layer on AZ91D alloy formed by plasma electrolytic oxidation,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 202, no. 17, pp. 4145–4152, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. M. Tang, W. Li, H. Liu, and L. Zhu, “Preparation Al2O3/ZrO2 composite coating in an alkaline phosphate electrolyte containing K2ZrF6 on aluminum alloy by microarc oxidation,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 258, no. 15, pp. 5869–5875, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. M. Tang, W. Li, H. Liu, and L. Zhu, “Influence of titania sol in the electrolyte on characteristics of the microarc oxidation coating formed on 2A70 aluminum alloy,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 205, no. 17-18, pp. 4135–4140, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. E. Matykina, R. Arrabal, P. Skeldon, and G. E. Thompson, “Investigation of the growth processes of coatings formed by AC plasma electrolytic oxidation of aluminium,” Electrochimica Acta, vol. 54, no. 27, pp. 6767–6778, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. V. Raj and M. Mubarak Ali, “Formation of ceramic alumina nanocomposite coatings on aluminium for enhanced corrosion resistance,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 209, no. 12-13, pp. 5341–5352, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. C. S. Dunleavy, J. A. Curran, and T. W. Clyne, “Self-similar scaling of discharge events through PEO coatings on aluminium,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 206, no. 6, pp. 1051–1061, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. M. Montazeri, C. Dehghanian, M. Shokouhfar, and A. Baradaran, “Investigation of the voltage and time effects on the formation of hydroxyapatite-containing titania prepared by plasma electrolytic oxidation on Ti-6Al-4V alloy and its corrosion behavior,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 257, no. 16, pp. 7268–7275, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. W. Xue, Q. Zhu, Q. Jin, and M. Hua, “Characterization of ceramic coatings fabricated on zirconium alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation in silicate electrolyte,” Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol. 120, no. 2-3, pp. 656–660, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. J. Li, H. Cai, X. Xue, and B. Jiang, “The outward-inward growth behavior of microarc oxidation coatings in phosphate and silicate solution,” Materials Letters, vol. 64, no. 19, pp. 2102–2104, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. G. Sundararajan and L. Rama Krishna, “Mechanisms underlying the formation of thick alumina coatings through the MAO coating technology,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 167, no. 2-3, pp. 269–277, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. H. Habazaki, S. Tsunekawa, E. Tsuji, and T. Nakayama, “Formation and characterization of wear-resistant PEO coatings formed on β-titanium alloy at different electrolyte temperatures,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 259, pp. 711–718, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  77. E. V. Parfenov, R. R. Nevyantseva, and S. A. Gorbatkov, “Process control for plasma electrolytic removal of TiN coatings. Part 1: duration control,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 199, no. 2-3, pp. 189–197, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. P. Huang, F. Wang, K. Xu, and Y. Han, “Mechanical properties of titania prepared by plasma electrolytic oxidation at different voltages,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 201, no. 9-11, pp. 5168–5171, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. D. Wei, Y. Zhou, D. Jia, and Y. Wang, “Effect of applied voltage on the structure of microarc oxidized TiO2-based bioceramic films,” Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol. 104, no. 1, pp. 177–182, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. H. Wu, X. Lu, B. Long, X. Wang, J. Wang, and Z. Jin, “The effects of cathodic and anodic voltages on the characteristics of porous nanocrystalline titania coatings fabricated by microarc oxidation,” Materials Letters, vol. 59, no. 2-3, pp. 370–375, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. C. B. Wei, X. B. Tian, S. Q. Yang, X. B. Wang, R. K. Y. Fu, and P. K. Chu, “Anode current effects in plasma electrolytic oxidation,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 201, no. 9-11, pp. 5021–5024, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. X.-M. Zhang, X.-B. Tian, C.-Z. Gong, and S.-Q. Yang, “Effects of current density on coating kinetic and micro-structure of microarc oxidation coatings fabricated on pure aluminum,” in Proceedings of the 3rd IEEE International Nanoelectronics Conference (INEC '10), pp. 1482–1483, January 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. X. Sun, Z. Jiang, Z. Yao, and X. Zhang, “The effects of anodic and cathodic processes on the characteristics of ceramic coatings formed on titanium alloy through the MAO coating technology,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 252, no. 2, pp. 441–447, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. P. Bala Srinivasan, J. Liang, R. G. Balajeee, C. Blawert, M. Störmer, and W. Dietzel, “Effect of pulse frequency on the microstructure, phase composition and corrosion performance of a phosphate-based plasma electrolytic oxidation coated AM50 magnesium alloy,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 256, no. 12, pp. 3928–3935, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. Z. Yao, Y. Liu, Y. Xu, Z. Jiang, and F. Wang, “Effects of cathode pulse at high frequency on structure and composition of Al2TiO5 ceramic coatings on Ti alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation,” Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol. 126, no. 1-2, pp. 227–231, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. P. Gupta, G. Tenhundfeld, E. O. Daigle, and D. Ryabkov, “Electrolytic plasma technology: science and engineering—an overview,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 201, no. 21, pp. 8746–8760, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. Y. M. Wang, H. Tian, X. E. Shen et al., “An elevated temperature infrared emissivity ceramic coating formed on 2024 aluminium alloy by microarc oxidation,” Ceramics International, vol. 39, pp. 2869–2875, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  88. Z. W. Wang, Y. M. Wang, Y. Liu et al., “Microstructure and infrared emissivity property of coating containing TiO2 formed on titanium alloy by microarc oxidation,” Current Applied Physics, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 1405–1409, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. P. M. de Woolf and J. W. Visser, “Absolute Intensities—outline of a recommended practice,” Powder Diffraction, vol. 3, pp. 202–204, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  90. E. P. G. T. van de Ven and H. Koelmans, “The cathodic corrosion of Aluminum,” Journal of The Electrochemical Society, vol. 123, pp. 143–144, 1976. View at Google Scholar
  91. E. V. Koroleva, G. E. Thompson, G. Hollrigl, and M. Bloeck, “Surface morphological changes of aluminium alloys in alkaline solution: effect of second phase material,” Corrosion Science, vol. 41, no. 8, pp. 1475–1495, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. C. Zhu, P. Lu, Z. Zheng, and J. Ganor, “Coupled alkali feldspar dissolution and secondary mineral precipitation in batch systems: 4. Numerical modeling of kinetic reaction paths,” Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol. 74, no. 14, pp. 3963–3983, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. Y. K. Pan, C. Z. Chen, D. G. Wang, X. Yu, and Z. Q. Lin, “Influence of additives on microstructure and property of microarc oxidized Mg-Si-O coatings,” Ceramics International, vol. 38, pp. 5527–5533, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. R. McPherson, “Formation of metastable phases in flame- and plasma-prepared alumina,” Journal of Materials Science, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 851–858, 1973. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. P. S. Santos, H. S. Santos, and S. P. Toledo, “Standard transition aluminas. Electron microscopy studies,” Materials Research, vol. 3, pp. 104–114, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  96. R. K. Iler, Chemistry of Silica—Solubility, Polymerization, Colloid and Surface Properties and Biochemistry, chapter 1, John Wiley & Sons, 1979.
  97. L. Rama Krishna, K. R. C. Somaraju, and G. Sundararajan, “The tribological performance of ultra-hard ceramic composite coatings obtained through microarc oxidation,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 163-164, pp. 484–490, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. F.-Y. Jin, K. Wang, M. Zhu et al., “Infrared reflection by alumina films produced on aluminum alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation,” Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol. 114, no. 1, pp. 398–401, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. K. Wang, B.-H. Koo, C.-G. Lee, Y.-J. Kim, S.-H. Lee, and E. Byon, “Effects of electrolytes variation on formation of oxide layers of 6061 Al alloys by plasma electrolytic oxidation,” Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 866–870, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. G. E. Walrafen and E. Pugh, “Raman combinations and stretching overtones from water, heavy water, and NaCl in water at shifts to ca. 7000 cm-1,” Journal of Solution Chemistry, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 81–97, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. S. P. Langley, “XXII. The selective absorption of solar energy,” Philosophical Magazine Series 5, vol. 15, no. 93, pp. 153–183, 1883. View at Google Scholar
  102. R. D. Aines and G. R. Rossman, “The high temperature behavior of water and carbon dioxide in cordierite and beryl,” American Mineralogist, vol. 69, no. 3-4, pp. 319–327, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. H. Rubens and E. Aschkinass, “Observations on the absorption and emission of aqueous vapor and carbon dioxide in the infra-red spectrum,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 8, p. 176, 1898. View at Google Scholar
  104. J. Ryczkowski, “IR spectroscopy in catalysis,” Catalysis Today, vol. 68, no. 4, pp. 263–381, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. K. M. Lee, B. U. Lee, S. I. Yoon, E. S. Lee, B. Yoo, and D. H. Shin, “Evaluation of plasma temperature during plasma oxidation processing of AZ91 Mg alloy through analysis of the melting behavior of incorporated particles,” Electrochimica Acta, vol. 67, pp. 6–11, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. R. O. Hussein, X. Nie, D. O. Northwood, A. Yerokhin, and A. Matthews, “Spectroscopic study of electrolytic plasma and discharging behaviour during the plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process,” Journal of Physics D, vol. 43, no. 10, Article ID 105203, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. Y. Wang, Z. Jiang, X. Liu, and Z. Yao, “Influence of treating frequency on microstructure and properties of Al2O3 coating on 304 stainless steel by cathodic plasma electrolytic deposition,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 255, no. 21, pp. 8836–8840, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. O. Rozenbaum, D. De Sousa Meneses, and P. Echegut, “Texture and porosity effects on the thermal radiative behavior of alumina ceramics,” International Journal of Thermophysics, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 580–590, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. A. Boumaza, L. Favaro, J. Lédion et al., “Transition alumina phases induced by heat treatment of boehmite: an X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy study,” Journal of Solid State Chemistry, vol. 182, no. 5, pp. 1171–1176, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. T. Morioka, S. Kimura, N. Tsuda, C. Kaito, Y. Saito, and C. Koike, “Study of the structure of silica film by infrared spectroscopy and electron diffraction analyses,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 299, no. 1, pp. 78–82, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. C. H. Rüscher, “Thermic transformation of sillimanite single crystals to 3:2 mullite plus melt: Investigations by polarized IR-reflection micro spectroscopy,” Journal of the European Ceramic Society, vol. 21, no. 14, pp. 2463–2469, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. K. Nouneh, I. V. Kityk, R. Viennois et al., “Influence of an electron-phonon subsystem on specific heat and two-photon absorption of the semimagnetic semiconductors Pb1-x Ybx X (X=S, Se,Te) near the semiconductor-isolator phase transformation,” Physical Review B, vol. 73, no. 3, Article ID 035329, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus