Table of Contents
Journal of Ceramics
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 681017, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/681017
Research Article

Provenance Study of Archaeological Ceramics from Syria Using XRF Multivariate Statistical Analysis and Thermoluminescence Dating

Atomic Energy Commission, Chemistry Department, P.O. Box 609, Damascus, Syria

Received 17 September 2013; Accepted 29 January 2014; Published 11 March 2014

Academic Editor: Guillaume Bernard-Granger

Copyright © 2014 Elias Hanna Bakraji et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. P. Aruga, M. Piero, and C. Antonella, “Application of multivariate chemometric techniques to the study of Roman pottery (terra sigillata),” Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 276, no. 1, pp. 197–204, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. C. Punyadeera, A. E. Pillay, L. Jacobson, and G. Whitelaw, “The use of correspondence analysis to compare major and trace elements for provenance studies of iron-age pottery from the Mngeni river area, South Africa,” Journal of Trace and Microprobe Techniques, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 63–79, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. E. H. Bakraji, I. Othman, A. Sarhil, and N. Al-somel, “Application of instrumental neutron activation analysis and multivariate statistical methods to archaeological Syrian ceramics,” Journal of Trace and Microprobe Techniques, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 57–68, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. M. D. Glascock, “Characterization of archaeological ceramics at MURR by neutron activation analysis and multivariate statistics,” in Chemical Characterization of Ceramic Pastes in Archaeology, H. Neff, Ed., pp. 11–26, Prehistory, Madison, Wis, USA, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  5. F. Widemann, “Neutron activation analysis for provenance studies of archaeological artifacts,” Journal of Radioanalytical Chemistry, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 271–281, 1980. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. E. V. Sayre and R. W. Dodson, “Neutron activation study of mediterranean potsherds,” American Journal of Archaeology, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 35–41, 1957. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. E. H. Bakraji, I. Othman, and J. Karajou, “Provenance studies of archaeological ceramics from Mar-Takla (Ain-Minin, Syria) using radioisotope X-ray fluorescence method,” Nuclear Science and Techniques, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 149–153, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. C. Punyadeera, A. E. Pillay, L. Jacobson, and G. Whitelaw, “Application of XRF and correspondence analysis to provenance studies of coastal and inland archaeological pottery from the Mngeni River Area, South Africa,” X-Ray Spectrometry, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 249–256, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. N. Hagihara, S. Miono, Z. Chengzhi, Y. Nakayama, K. Hanamoto, and S. Manabe, “The combined application of PIXE analysis and thermoluminescence (TL) dating for elucidating the origin of iron manufacturing in Japan,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, vol. 150, no. 1–4, pp. 635–639, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. I. E. Kieft, D. N. Jamieson, B. Rout, R. Szymanski, and A. S. Jamieson, “PIXE cluster analysis of ancient ceramics from North Syria,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, vol. 190, no. 1–4, pp. 492–496, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. J. W. Beal and I. Olmez, “Provenance studies of pottery fragments from medieval Cairo, Egypt,” Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, vol. 221, no. 1-2, pp. 9–17, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. E. de Sena, S. Landsberger, J. T. Pena, and S. Wisseman, “Analysis of ancient pottery from the Palatine hill in Rome,” Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, vol. 196, no. 2, pp. 223–234, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. D. Curie, Luminescence in Crystal, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 1960.
  14. M. A. Aitken, Thermoluminescence Dating, Academic Press, 1985.
  15. A. G. Wintle, “Luminescence dating: laboratory procedures and protocols,” Radiation Measurements, vol. 27, no. 5-6, pp. 769–817, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. E. H. Bakraji, “Study of Syrian archaeological pottery by the combined application of thermoluminescence (TL) dating, X-ray fluorescence analysis and statistical multivariate analysis,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, vol. 269, no. 19, pp. 2052–2056, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. Quantitative X-ray analysis system, QXAS, Doc, Version 2. 0, IAEA, 2005.
  18. A. M. Bieber, D. W. Brooks, G. Harbottle, and E. V. Sayre, “Application of multivariate techniques to analytical data on Aegean ceramics,” Archaeometry, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 59–74, 1976. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. G. Adamiec and M. J. Aitken, “Dose-rate conversion factors: update,” Ancient TL, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 37–50, 1998. View at Google Scholar