Table of Contents
Journal of Ceramics
Volume 2015, Article ID 835150, 12 pages
Research Article

Preparation, Structural, Electrical, and Ferroelectric Properties of Lead Niobate–Lead Zirconate–Lead Titanate Ternary System

Crystal Growth & Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Physics and Electronics, University of Jammu, Jammu 180006, India

Received 8 September 2014; Revised 2 January 2015; Accepted 9 January 2015

Academic Editor: Shaomin Liu

Copyright © 2015 Rashmi Gupta et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


A ternary system of lead niobate–lead zirconate–lead titanate with composition xPN–yPZ–(x-y)PT where and , 0.25, and 0.35 known as PNZT has been prepared by conventional mixed oxide route at a temperature of 1100°C. The formation of the perovskite phase was established by X-ray diffraction analysis. The surface morphology studied by scanning electron microscopy shows the formation of fairly dense grains and elemental composition was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Dielectric properties like dielectric constant and dielectric loss ( and ) indicate poly-dispersive nature of the material. The temperature dependent dielectric constant () curve indicates relaxor behaviour with two dielectric anomalies. The poly-dispersive nature of the material was analysed by Cole-Cole plots. The activation energy follows the Arrhenius law and is found to decrease with increasing frequency for each composition. The frequency dependence of ac conductivity follows the universal power law. The ac conductivity analysis suggests that hopping of charge carriers among the localized sites is responsible for electrical conduction. The ferroelectric studies reveal that these ternary systems are soft ferroelectric.