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E-Journal of Chemistry
Volume 6 (2009), S1, Pages S1-S11

Adsorption of Chromium Ions by Acid Activated Low Cost Carbon-Kinetic,Thermodynamic and Equilibrium Studies

B. R. Venkatraman,1 S. Parthasarathy,2 A. Kasthuri,3 P. Pandian,1 and S. Arivoli4

1P.G & Research Department of Chemistry, Periyar E.V.R.College (Autonomous), Tiruchirappalli-620 023, Tamilnadu, India
2Department of Chemistry, CARE School of Engineering, Tiruchirappalli-620 009, Tamilnadu, India
3Department of Chemistry, Nehru Memorial College, Puthanampatti, Tiruchirappalli-621 007, Tamilnadu, India
4P.G. Department of Chemistry, H.H.The Rajah's College, Pudukkottai-622 001, Tamilnadu, India

Received 10 April 2008; Revised 25 May 2008; Accepted 1 June 2008

Copyright © 2009 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


A carbonaceous adsorbent prepared from an indigenous waste, by acid treatment was tested for its efficiency in removing metal ions. The process parameters studied include agitation time, initial metal ions concentration, carbon dose, pH and temperature. The adsorption followed first order reaction equation and the rate is mainly controlled by intra-particle diffusion. Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models were applied to the equilibrium data. The adsorption capacity (Qm) obtained from the Langmuir isotherm plot were found to around 30 mg/g at an initial pH of 7.0. The temperature variation study showed that the metal ions adsorption is endothermic and spontaneous with increased randomness at the solid solution interface. Significant effect on adsorption was observed on varying the pH of the metal ion solutions. The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms obtained, positive ΔH0 value, pH dependent results and desorption of metal ions in mineral acid suggest that the adsorption of metal ions on BBC involves chemisorption as well as physisorption mechanism.