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E-Journal of Chemistry
Volume 6 (2009), Issue 4, Pages 949-954

Adsorption of Reactive Dyes by Palm Kernel Shell Activated Carbon: Application of Film Surface and Film Pore Diffusion Models

M. M. Nourouzi, T. G. Chuah, and Thomas S. Y. Choong

Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra, Malaysia, 43300 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Received 1 October 2008; Revised 17 February 2009; Accepted 15 March 2009

Copyright © 2009 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The rate of adsorption of two reactive dyes, Reactive Black 5 and Reactive Red E onto palm kernel shell-based activated carbon was studied. The experiment was carried out to investigate three models: film diffusion model, film-surface and film-pore diffusion models. The results showed that the external coefficients of mass transfer decreased with increasing of initial adsorbate concentration. In addition, it was found that the adsorption process was better described by using the two resistance models, i.e. film-surface diffusion.