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E-Journal of Chemistry
Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 1077-1084

Homogeneous Liquid-Liquid Extraction Method for Selective Separation and Preconcentration of Trace Amounts of Palladium

Mohammad Reza Jamali,1 Yaghoub Assadi,2 Reyhaneh Rahnama Kozani,3 and Farzaneh Shemirani4

1Department of Chemistry, Payam Noor University, Behshahr, Iran
2Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran
3Department of Chemistry, Payam Noor University, Sari, Iran
4School of Chemistry, University College of Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

Received 25 January 2009; Accepted 20 March 2009

Copyright © 2009 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


A simple and effective homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction method for selective separation, preconcentration and spectrophotometric determination of palladium(II) ion was developed by using a ternary component system (water / tetrabutylammonium ion (TBA+) / chloroform). The phase separation phenomenon occurred by an ion–pair formation of TBA+ and perchlorate ion. Thio-Michler’s ketone (TMK), 4, 4ˊ-bis (dimethylamino) thiobenzophenone, was used as a complexing agent. After optimization of complexation and extraction conditions ([TMK]=5.0x10-2 mol L-1, [TBA+] = 2.0×10-2 mol L-1, [CHCl3] = 60.0 µL, [ClO4-] = 2.5×10-2 mol L-1 and pH= 3.0), a preconcentration factor 10 was obtained for 10 mL of sample. The analytical curve was linear in the range of 2-100 ng mL-1 and the limit of detection was 0.4 ng mL-1. The relative standard deviation was 3.2% (n=10). Accuracy and application of the method was estimated by using test samples of natural and synthetic water spiked with different amounts of palladium(II) ion. The method is very simple and inexpensive.