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E-Journal of Chemistry
Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 1266-1273

Physicochemical Characteristics of Pennar River, A Fresh Water Wetland in Kerala, India

P. V. Joseph1 and Claramma Jacob2

1Department of Zoology, K.E. College, Mannanam Kottayam-686561, Kerala, India
2P.G. Department of Zoology, Alphonsa College, Pala, Kottayam-686574, Kerala, India

Received 10 January 2010; Accepted 5 March 2010

Copyright © 2010 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Some physicochemical characteristics of a fresh water wetland were investigated. The analysis was carried out for a period of two years. Physical parameters such as colour, odour, temperature, electrical conductivity (EC) total suspended solids (TSS) total dissolved substances (TDS), total solids (TS), turbidity and chemical parameters such as pH, alkalinity, hardness, dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), chloride, salinity, flouride, phosphate & nitrate were examined. Results of the study indicated that water in Pennar river is highly contaminated and not safe for drinking. Uncontrolled use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, unscrupulous dumping of domestic wastes are the major causes of deterioration of water. Poor quality of drinking water was recorded as the major risk factor for the large-scale water-borne diseases in the area.