A Study of Physicochemical Parameters and Nine Heavy Metals in the Euphrates River, Iraq
This study was conducted to reveal possible environmental effects on the Euphrates River from the Al-Hindiya barrage to the downstream end of Al-Kufa city in the middle of Iraq. Seven sites were selected along the study area and sampled during March 2004 to February 2005. We measured physical and chemical properties (air and water temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, TDS, TSS and dissolved oxygen) as well as, concentration and distribution of some heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in both dissolved and particulate phases, in the water and sediments (exchangeable and residual phases). The studied area was slightly alkaline, with very hard water and high BOD5. The nutrients showed clear seasonal fluctuations in their concentrations. It was shown that the concentrations of metals in the particulate phase were higher than those in dissolved phase in water. In sediments, the mean concentrations of heavy metals as exchangeable phase were less than in the residual phase.