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E-Journal of Chemistry
Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 1478-1489

Study of Mechanical Properties of Waste Biomass Reinforced Urea-Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Composites

A. S. SINGHA,1,2 B. S. Kaith,1,2 Inderjeet Kaur,1,2 and Ashwarya Jyoti Khanna1,2

1National Institute of Technology, Hamirpur (H.P)-177 005, India
2Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla (H.P)-171 005, India

Received 29 November 2008; Revised 5 April 2011; Accepted 9 April 2011

Copyright © 2011 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Natural fibers play an important role in developing high performing fully biodegradable composites which will be a key material to solve the current ecological and environmental problems. Due to enormous advantages of composites reinforced with natural fibers, a study on pine needles reinforced urea-resorcinol-formaldehyde composites has been made. Present investigation has revealed that urea-formaldehyde resin in 1.0: 2.5 ratio exhibits optimum mechanical behavior whereas in case urea-resorcinol- formaldehyde resin, the best mechanical behavior was shown by 1.0: 1.0: 2.5 ratios. However, reinforcing of this resin with pine-needles of 1 cm size and evaluation of their mechanical properties showed that mechanical properties increase with reinforcement. These results were further supported by the SEM and thermal studies.