Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Chemistry
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 327582, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/327582
Research Article

Trans Fatty Acids in the Hong Kong Food Supply

1Food Research Laboratory, Food and Environmental Hygiene Department, Centre for Food Safety, 4/F Public Health Laboratory Centre, 382 Nam Cheong Street, Hong Kong
2Risk Assessment Section, Food and Environmental Hygiene Department, Centre for Food Safety, 43/F, Queensway Government Offices, 66 Queensway, Hong Kong
3Food and Environmental Hygiene Department, Centre for Food Safety, 45/F, Queensway Government Offices, 66 Queensway, Hong Kong

Received 7 May 2013; Revised 18 July 2013; Accepted 20 July 2013

Academic Editor: Ioannis G. Roussis

Copyright © 2013 Stephen W. C. Chung et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. World Health Organization, The Atlas of Heart Disease and Stroke, 2004, http://www.who.int/cardiovascular_diseases/en/cvd_atlas_25_future.pdf.
  2. Hong Kong Centre for Health Protection, Death Rates for Leading Causes of Death, 2001–2009, 2010, http://www.chp.gov.hk/en/data/4/10/27/117.html.
  3. M. C. Craig-Schmidt, “World-wide consumption of trans fatty acids,” Atherosclerosis Supplements, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 1–4, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. European Food Safety Authority, “Opinion of the scientific panel on dietetic products, nutrition and allergies [NDA] related to the presence of trans fatty acids in foods and the effect on human health of the consumption of trans fatty acids,” 2007, http://www.efsa.europa.eu/EFSA/efsa_locale-1178620753812_1178620767491.htm.
  5. World Health Organization, “Population nutrient intake goals for preventing diet-related chronic diseases,” in Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation on Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases, WHO Technical Report Series 916, chapter 5, 2003, http://whqlibdoc.who.int/trs/WHO_TRS_916.pdf. View at Google Scholar
  6. Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee, Fats in the Report of the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee on Dietary Guidelines for Americans, Part D: Science Base, Section 4, 2005, http://www.health.gov/dietaryguidelines/dga2005/report/HTML/D4_Fats.htm.
  7. Health Canada, “TRANSforming the food supply is the final report of the trans fat task force,” Health Canada and the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, submitted to the Minister of Health, 2013, http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/nutrition/gras-trans-fats/tf-ge/tf-gt_rep-rap-eng.php.
  8. Senate and House of Representatives of the Republic of the Philippines in Congress, “House Bill no. 330: Trans fat labeling requirements on food product labels and banning harmful trans fat in food,” http://www.congress.gov.ph/download/basic_15/HB00330.pdf.
  9. New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, The Regulation to Phase Out Artificial Trans Fat in New York City Food Service Establishments, 2008, http://www.nyc.gov/html/doh/downloads/pdf/cardio/cardio-transfat-bro.pdf.
  10. Danish Nutrition Council, The Influence of Trans Fatty Acids on Health, 4th edition, 2003, http://www.meraadet.dk/gfx/uploads/rapporter_pdf/Trans%20fatty%20acids_4.th%20ed._UK_www.pdf.
  11. US Food and Drug Administration, “Federal register—68 FR 41433 July 11, 2003: food labeling; trans fatty acids in nutrition labeling; consumer research to consider nutrient content and health claims and possible footnote or disclosure statements; final rule and proposed rule,” 2005, https://www.federalregister.gov/regulations/0910-AC50/food-labeling-trans-fatty-acids-in-nutrition-labeling-consumer-research-to-consider-nutrient-content.
  12. Health Canada, “Trans fat,” 2009, http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/nutrition/gras-trans-fats/index-eng.php.
  13. T. Leth, H. G. Jensen, A. A. Mikkelsen, and A. Bysted, “The effect of the regulation on trans fatty acid content in Danish food,” Atherosclerosis Supplements, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 53–56, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. M. J. Albers, L. J. Harnack, L. M. Steffen, and D. R. Jacobs Jr., “2006 marketplace survey of trans-fatty acid content of margarines and butters, cookies and snack cakes, and savory snacks,” Journal of the American Dietetic Association, vol. 108, no. 2, pp. 367–370, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. W. M. N. Ratnayake, M. R. L'Abbe, and D. Mozaffarian, “Nationwide product reformulations to reduce trans fatty acids in Canada: when trans fat goes out, what goes in?” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 63, no. 6, pp. 808–811, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. S. M. Downs, A. M. Thow, and S. R. Leeder, “The effectiveness of policies for reducing dietary trans fat: a systematic review of the evidence,” Bulletin of the World Health Organization, vol. 91, pp. 262H–269H, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  17. S. M. Teegala, W. C. Willett, and D. Mozaffarian, “Consumption and health effects of trans fatty acids: a review,” Journal of AOAC International, vol. 92, no. 5, pp. 1250–1257, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. D. Ansorena, A. Echarte, R. Ollé, and I. Astiasarán, “2012: No trans fatty acids in Spanish bakery products,” Food Chemistry, vol. 138, no. 1, pp. 422–429, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. M. Roe and P. M. Finglas, “UK food composition data—updating the McCance and Widdowson integrated dataset,” Journal of the Association of Public Analysts, vol. 40, pp. 69–70, 2012, http://www.apajournal.org.uk/2012_0069-0070.pdf. View at Google Scholar
  20. Hong Kong Department of Justice, Cap 132W Food and Drugs (Composition and Labelling) Regulations, 2010, http://www.legislation.gov.hk/blis_ind.nsf/WebView?OpenAgent&vwpg=CURALLENGDOC*132*100*132.24#132.24.
  21. AOAC, Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International (OMA), 19th edition, 2012.
  22. Hong Kong Centre for Food Safety, Technical Guidance Notes on Nutrition Labelling and Nutrition Claims, 2008, http://www.cfs.gov.hk/english/food_leg/files/nl_technical_guidance_e.pdf.
  23. J. McCarthy, D. Barr, and A. Sinclair, “Determination of trans fatty acid levels by FTIR in processed foods in Australia,” Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 391–396, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. M. M. Mossoba, J. Moss, and J. K. G. Kramer, “Trans fat labeling and levels in U.S. foods: assessment of gas chromatographic and infrared spectroscopic techniques for regulatory compliance,” Journal of AOAC International, vol. 92, no. 5, pp. 1284–1300, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M. A. van Erp-Baart, C. Couet, C. Cuadrado, A. Kafatos, J. Stanley, and G. van Poppel, “Transfatty acids in bakery products from 14 european countries: the TRANSFAIR study,” Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 161–169, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. W. M. N. Ratnayake, M. R. L'abbé, S. Farnworth et al., “Trans fatty acids: current contents in Canadian foods and estimated intake levels for the Canadian population,” Journal of AOAC International, vol. 92, no. 5, pp. 1258–1276, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. P. M. Fernández and S. Juan, “Fatty acid composition of commercial Spanish fast food and snack food,” Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 275–281, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. E. K. Richter, K. A. Shawish, M. R. L. Scheeder, and P. C. Colombani, “Trans fatty acid content of selected Swiss foods: the TransSwissPilot study,” Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 479–484, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. H. Fu, L. Yang, H. Yuan, P. Rao, and Y. M. Lo, “Assessment of trans fatty acids content in popular Western-style products in China,” Journal of Food Science, vol. 73, no. 8, pp. S383–S391, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. A. Baylin, X. Siles, A. Donovan-Palmer, X. Fernandez, and H. Campos, “Fatty acid composition of Costa Rican foods including trans fatty acid content,” Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, vol. 20, no. 3-4, pp. 182–192, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. A. Aro, E. Amaral, H. Kesteloot, A. Rimestad, M. Thamm, and G. van Poppel, “Transfatty acids in French fries, soups, and snacks from 14 european countries: the TRANSFAIR study,” Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 170–177, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus