Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Chemistry
Volume 2013, Article ID 456586, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/456586
Research Article

Application of Titanium Dioxide-Graphene Composite Material for Photocatalytic Degradation of Alkylphenols

1Department of Chemistry and Center of Research Excellence in Nanotechnology, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, KFUPM Box 1509, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia
2Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117543

Received 13 May 2012; Revised 26 June 2012; Accepted 28 June 2012

Academic Editor: Zhongfang Chen

Copyright © 2013 Chanbasha Basheer. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. C. Basheer, H. K. Lee, and K. S. Tan, “Endocrine disrupting alkylphenols and bisphenol-A in coastal waters and supermarket seafood from Singapore,” Marine Pollution Bulletin, vol. 48, pp. 1145–1167, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  2. S. Yamazaki, T. Mori, T. Katou, M. Sugihara, A. Saeki, and T. Tanimura, “Photocatalytic degradation of 4-tert-octylphenol in water and the effect of peroxydisulfate as additives,” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A, vol. 199, no. 2-3, pp. 330–335, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. European Commission, “Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2000 establishing a framework for Community action in the field of water policy,” Official Journal, vol. L 327, pp. 0001–0073, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  4. I. Gültekin and N. H. Ince, “Synthetic endocrine disruptors in the environment and water remediation by advanced oxidation processes,” Journal of Environmental Management, vol. 85, no. 4, pp. 816–832, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. R. Loos, J. Wollgast, J. Castro-Jiménez et al., “Laboratory intercomparison study for the analysis of nonylphenol and octylphenol in river water,” Trends in Analytical Chemistry, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 89–95, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. S. S. Watson, D. Beydoun, J. A. Scott, and R. Amal, “The effect of preparation method on the photoactivity of crystalline titanium dioxide particles,” Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 95, no. 1, pp. 213–220, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. S. Kohtani, S. Makino, A. Kudo, K. Tokumura, and Y. Ishigaki, “Photocatalytic degradation of 4-n-nonylphenol under irradiation from solar simulator: comparison between BiVO4 and TiO2 photocatalysts,” Chemistry Letters, no. 7, pp. 660–661, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. B. Tryba, “Increase of the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 by carbon and iron modifications,” International Journal of Photoenergy, vol. 2008, Article ID 721824, 15 pages, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. D. Li, M. B. Müller, S. Gilje, R. B. Kaner, and G. G. Wallace, “Processable aqueous dispersions of graphene nanosheets,” Nature Nanotechnology, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 101–105, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. S. Kwon, M. Fan, A. T. Cooper, and H. Yang, “Photocatalytic applications of micro- and Nano-TiO2 in environmental engineering,” Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 197–226, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  11. Y. Yu, J. C. Yu, C. Y. Chan et al., “Enhancement of adsorption and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 by using carbon nanotubes for the treatment of azo dye,” Applied Catalysis B, vol. 61, no. 1-2, pp. 1–11, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. S. H. Xie, J. Y. Li, Y. Qiao et al., “Multiferroic CoFe2O4−Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 nanofibers by electrospinning,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 92, no. 6, Article ID 062901, 3 pages, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. G. Eda, G. Fanchini, and M. Chhowalla, “Large-area ultrathin films of reduced graphene oxide as a transparent and flexible electronic material,” Nature Nanotechnology, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 270–274, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nature Materials, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 183–191, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. S. Stankovich, D. A. Dikin, R. D. Piner et al., “Synthesis of graphene-based nanosheets via chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide,” Carbon, vol. 45, no. 7, pp. 1558–1565, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. Y. Zhang, N. Zhang, Z. R. Tang, and Y. J. Xu, “Improving the photocatalytic performance of graphene-TiO2 nanocomposites via a combined strategy of decreasing defects of graphene and increasing interfacial contact,” Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, vol. 14, no. 25, pp. 9167–9175, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. N. Zhang, Y. Zhang, X. Pan, X. Fu, S. Liu, and Y. J. Xu, “Assembly of CdS nanoparticles on the two-dimensional graphene scaffold as visible-light-driven photocatalyst for selective organic transformation under ambient conditions,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 115, no. 47, pp. 23501–23511, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. Y. Zhang, Z. R. Tang, X. Fu, and Y. J. Xu, “Engineering the unique 2D mat of graphene to achieve graphene-TiO2 nanocomposite for photocatalytic selective transformation: what advantage does graphene have over its forebear carbon nanotube?” ACS Nano, vol. 5, no. 9, pp. 7426–7435, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. Y. Zhang, Z. R. Tang, X. Z. Fu, and Y. J. Xu, “TiO2-graphene nanocomposites for gas-phase photocatalytic degradation of volatile aromatic pollutant: is TiO2-graphene truly different from other TiO2-carbon composite materials?” ACS Nano, vol. 4, no. 12, pp. 7303–7314, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. W. S. Hummers and R. E. Offeman, “Preparation of graphitic oxide,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 80, no. 6, article 1339, 1958. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. Y. Yu, J. C. Yu, C. Y. Chan et al., “Enhancement of photocatalytic activity of mesoporous TiO2 by using carbon nanotubes,” Applied Catalysis A, vol. 289, no. 2, pp. 186–196, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. U. I. Gaya and A. H. Abdullah, “Heterogeneous photocatalytic degradation of organic contaminants over titanium dioxide: a review of fundamentals, progress and problems,” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology C, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 1–12, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. K. Porkodi and S. D. Arokiamary, “Synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of nanostructured anatase titania: a photocatalyst,” Materials Characterization, vol. 58, no. 6, pp. 495–503, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. Y. Si and E. T. Samulski, “Synthesis of water soluble graphene,” Nano Letters, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 1679–1682, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. C. Nethravathi and M. Rajamathi, “Chemically modified graphene sheets produced by the solvothermal reduction of colloidal dispersions of graphite oxide,” Carbon, vol. 46, no. 14, pp. 1994–1998, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. J. Wang, G. Zhao, Z. H. Zhang et al., “Investigation on degradation of azo fuchsine using visible light in the presence of heat-treated anatase TiO2 powder,” Dyes and Pigments, vol. 75, no. 2, pp. 335–343, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. G. Liu, X. Wang, Z. Chen, H. M. Cheng, and G. Lu, “The role of crystal phase in determining photocatalytic activity of nitrogen doped TiO2,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 329, no. 2, pp. 331–338, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. S. Şener, M. Erdemoğlu, M. Asiltürk, and H. Sayilkan, “The effect of silane modification on the adsorptive properties of natural pyrophyllite and synthetic titanium-based powders prepared by the sol-gel process,” Turkish Journal of Chemistry, vol. 29, pp. 487–495, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  29. G. Williams, B. Seger, and P. V. Kamt, “TiO2-graphene nanocomposites. UV-assisted photocatalytic reduction of graphene oxide,” ACS Nano, vol. 2, no. 7, pp. 1487–1491, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. H. B. Li, X. C. Duan, G. C. Liu, and L. L. Li, “Synthesis and characterization of copper ions surface-doped titanium dioxide nanotubes,” Materials Research Bulletin, vol. 43, no. 8-9, pp. 1971–1981, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. J. Zhou, Y. Zhang, X. S. Zhao, and A. K. Ray, “Photodegradation of benzoic acid over metal-doped TiO2,” Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, vol. 45, no. 10, pp. 3503–3511, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  32. C. Basheer and H. K. Lee, “Analysis of endocrine disrupting alkylphenols, chlorophenols and bisphenol-A using hollow fiber-protected liquid-phase microextraction coupled with injection port-derivatization gas chromatography—mass spectrometry,” Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 1057, no. 1-2, pp. 163–169, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  33. Thermo Scientific, “Silylation (Analytical/Chromatography),” http://www.thermo.com/com/cda/product/detail/0, 1055, 10144049, 00.html.
  34. D. Li, J. Park, and J. R. Oh, “Silyl derivatization of alkylphenols, chlorophenols, and bisphenol A for simultaneous GC/MS determination,” Analytical Chemistry, vol. 73, no. 13, pp. 3089–3095, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. I. K. Konstantinou and T. A. Albanis, “Photocatalytic transformation of pesticides in aqueous titanium dioxide suspensions using artificial and solar light: intermediates and degradation pathways,” Applied Catalysis B, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 319–335, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  36. S. Kohtani, J. Hiro, N. Yamamoto, A. Kudo, K. Tokumura, and R. Nakagaki, “Adsorptive and photocatalytic properties of Ag-loaded BiVO4 on the degradation of 4-n-alkylphenols under visible light irradiation,” Catalysis Communications, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 185–189, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. Y. Yao, G. Li, S. Ciston, R. M. Lueptow, and K. A. Gray, “Photoreactive TiO2/carbon nanotube composites: synthesis and reactivity,” Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 42, no. 13, pp. 4952–4957, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. Y. S. Luo, J. P. Liu, X. H. Xia et al., “Fabrication and characterization of TiO2/short MWNTs with enhanced photocatalytic activity,” Materials Letters, vol. 61, no. 11-12, pp. 2467–2472, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar