Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Chemistry
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 352675, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/352675
Research Article

Polychlorinated Biphenyls in the Centralized Wastewater Treatment Plant in a Chemical Industry Zone: Source, Distribution, and Removal

1Key Laboratory of Biomass Chemical Engineering of Ministry of Education, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China
2Faculty of Architectural, Civil Engineering and Environment College, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211, China

Received 13 March 2014; Revised 8 June 2014; Accepted 10 July 2014; Published 5 August 2014

Academic Editor: Davide Vione

Copyright © 2014 Min Yao et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. K. C. Jones and P. de Voogt, “Persistent organic pollutants (POPs): state of the science,” Environmental Pollution, vol. 100, no. 1–3, pp. 209–221, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. K. Breivik, A. Sweetman, J. M. Pacyna, and K. C. Jones, “Towards a global historical emission inventory for selected PCB congeners—a mass balance approach: 1. Global production and consumption,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 290, no. 1–3, pp. 181–198, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. L. A. Rodenburg, J. Guo, S. Du, and G. J. Cavallo, “Evidence for unique and ubiquitous environmental sources of 3,3′-dichlorobiphenyl (PCB 11),” Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 44, no. 8, pp. 2816–2821, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. B. Fraser, “Researchers find little-known PCB ‘pretty much everywhere’,” Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 44, no. 8, pp. 2753–2754, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. M. Pandelova, R. Piccinelli, S. Kasham, B. Henkelmann, C. Leclercq, and K. W. Schramm, “Assessment of dietary exposure to PCDD/F and dioxin-like PCB in infant formulae available on the EU market,” Chemosphere, vol. 81, no. 8, pp. 1018–1021, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. F. Samara, C. W. Tsai, and D. S. Aga, “Determination of potential sources of PCBs and PBDEs in sediments of the Niagara River,” Environmental Pollution, vol. 139, no. 3, pp. 489–497, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. A. Martinez, K. Wang, and K. C. Hornbuckle, “Fate of PCB congeners in an industrial harbor of lake Michigan,” Environmental Science & Technology, vol. 44, no. 8, pp. 2803–2808, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. T. Pham and S. Proulx, “PCBs and PAHs in the Montreal urban community (Quebec, Canada) wastewater treatment plant and in the effluent plume in the St Lawrence river,” Water Research, vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 1887–1896, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. Y. W. Wang, X. M. Li, A. Li et al., “Effect of municipal sewage treatment plant effluent on bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the recipient water,” Environmental Science & Technology, vol. 41, no. 17, pp. 6026–6032, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. P.-A. Bergqvist, L. Augulyte, and V. Jurjoniene, “PAH and PCB removal efficiencies in Umeå (Sweden) and Šiauliai (Lithuania) municipal wastewater treatment plants,” Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, vol. 175, no. 1–4, pp. 291–303, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. G. Byrns, “The fate of xenobiotic organic compounds in wastewater treatment plants,” Water Research, vol. 35, no. 10, pp. 2523–2533, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. A. Katsoyiannis and C. Samara, “Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the sewage treatment plant of Thessaloniki, Northern Greece: occurrence and removal,” Water Research, vol. 38, no. 11, pp. 2685–2698, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. H. Liu, Q. Zhang, Z. Cai, A. Li, Y. Wang, and G. Jiang, “Separation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo-furans in environmental samples using silica gel and florisil fractionation chromatography,” Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 557, no. 1-2, pp. 314–320, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. US EPA, “Method 1668 Revision A: Chlorinated biphenyl congeners in water, soil, sediment, and tissue by HRGC/HRMS,” Washington, DC, USA, EPA No. EPA-821-R-00-002, 1999.
  15. R. Yang, Y. Wang, A. Li et al., “Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in fish from lakes of the Tibetan Plateau and the implications,” Environmental Pollution, vol. 158, no. 6, pp. 2310–2316, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. L. Guo, B. Zhang, K. Xiao, Q. H. Zheng, and M. H. Zheng, “Levels and distributions of polychlorinated biphenyls in sewage sludge of urban wastewater treatment plants,” Journal of Environmental Sciences, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 468–473, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. S. Litten, B. Fowler, and D. Luszniak, “Identification of a novel PCB source through analysis of 209 PCB congeners by US EPA modified method 1668,” Chemosphere, vol. 46, no. 9-10, pp. 1457–1459, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. D. Hu and K. C. Hornbuckle, “Inadvertent polychlorinated biphenyls in commercial paint pigments,” Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 44, no. 8, pp. 2822–2827, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. F. Rajaei, A. Esmaili-Sari, N. Bahramifar, M. Ghasempouri, and M. Savabieasfahani, “Avian liver organochlorine and PCB from South coast of the Caspian Sea, Iran,” Ecotoxicology, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 329–337, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. W. Herbst and K. Hunger, Industrial Organic Pigments, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany, 3rd edition, 2004.
  21. H. L. He, Fine Chemicals Daquan: Dyes (Chinese Version), Zhejiang Science and Technology Press, Hangzhou, China, 2000.
  22. M. Blanchard, M. J. Teil, D. Ollivon, L. Legenti, and M. Chevreuil, “Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorobiphenyls in wastewaters and sewage sludges from the Paris area (France),” Environmental Research, vol. 95, no. 2, pp. 184–197, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. G. S. Durell and R. D. Lizotte Jr., “PCB levels at 26 New York City and New Jersey WPCPs that discharge to the New York/New Jersey Harbor Estuary,” Environmental Science & Technology, vol. 32, no. 8, pp. 1022–1031, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. C. Vogelsang, M. Grung, T. G. Jantsch, K. E. Tollefsen, and H. Liltved, “Occurrence and removal of selected organic micropollutants at mechanical, chemical and advanced wastewater treatment plants in Norway,” Water Research, vol. 40, no. 19, pp. 3559–3570, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. S. J. de Luca, M. Cantelli, and M. A. de Luca, “Ferrate vs traditional coagulants in the treatment of combined industrial wastes,” Water Science and Technology, vol. 26, no. 9–11, pp. 2077–2080, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. Ministry of Environmental Protection of the People's Republic of China, “Discharge standard of pollutants for municipal wastewater treatment plant (GB 18918-2002)”.
  27. S. Morris and J. N. Lester, “Behaviour and fate of polychlorinated biphenyls in a pilot wastewater treatment plant,” Water Research, vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 1553–1561, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. A. Katsoyiannis and C. Samara, “Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the conventional activated sludge treatment process: fate and mass balance,” Environmental Research, vol. 97, no. 3, pp. 245–257, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. D. W. Hawker and D. W. Connell, “Octanol-water partition coefficients of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners,” Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 382–387, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. M. F. Yeh and C. S. Hong, “Octanol-water partition coefficients of non-ortho- and mono-ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls,” Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 209–215, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. T. D. Waite and K. A. Gray, “Oxidation and coagulation of wastewater effluent utilizing ferrate (VI) ion,” Studies in Environmental Science, vol. 23, pp. 407–420, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus