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Journal of Chemistry
Volume 2014, Article ID 542121, 10 pages
Research Article

Application of an Optimized HPLC Method for the Detection of Various Phenolic Compounds in Apples from Lithuanian Cultivars

1Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, A. Mickevičiaus Street 9, LT-44307 Kaunas, Lithuania
2Institute of Horticulture, Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry, Kauno Street 30, Babtai, LT-54333 Kaunas, Lithuania

Received 23 January 2014; Revised 19 March 2014; Accepted 2 April 2014; Published 24 April 2014

Academic Editor: Maria Luisa Serralheiro

Copyright © 2014 Mindaugas Liaudanskas et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


A specific analytical procedure including sample preparation and HPLC analysis was developed and validated for the detection of phenolic compounds in the samples of different apples from popular Lithuanian cultivars “Aldas,” “Auksis,” “Ligol,” and “Šampion.” The conditions for phenol extraction were optimized: the solvent of the extraction was 70% (v/v) ethanol, and the extraction was performed in an ultrasound bath for 20 min at the temperature of 40°C. The HPLC mobile phase consisted of 2% (v/v) acetic acid in water and 100% (v/v) acetonitrile. Using the HPLC technique, 11 analytes were identified, and their specificity was confirmed: procyanidin B1, (+)-catechin, chlorogenic acid, procyanidin B2, (−)-epicatechin, rutin, hyperoside, isoquercitrin, avicularin, quercitrin, and phloridzin. Chlorogenic acid was the major component in “Aldas,” “Auksis,” and “Ligol” and procyanidin B2 in “Šampion.” Hyperoside and avicularin were the dominant compounds of all the identified quercetin derivatives in “Aldas” and “Auksis;” hyperoside in “Šampion;” and quercitrin in “Ligol.” The total content of phenolic compounds varied from 1641.0 ± 47.9 μg/g (cv. “Ligol”) to 4291.3 ± 154.2 μg/g (cv. “Aldas”).