Journal of Chemistry

Journal of Chemistry / 2015 / Article

Review Article | Open Access

Volume 2015 |Article ID 294858 | 8 pages | https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/294858

Xanthine Oxidase: Isolation, Assays of Activity, and Inhibition

Academic Editor: Patricia Valentao
Received18 Nov 2014
Accepted21 Jan 2015
Published23 Feb 2015

Abstract

Xanthine oxidase (XO) is an important enzyme catalyzing the hydroxylation of hypoxanthine to xanthine and xanthine to uric acid which is excreted by kidneys. Excessive production and/or inadequate excretion of uric acid results in hyperuricemia. This paper presents a detailed review of methods of isolation, determination of xanthine oxidase activity, and the effect of plant extracts and their constituents on it. Determining the content and activities of XO can be used for diagnostic purposes. Testing inhibition of XO is important for detection of potentially effective compounds or extracts that can be used to treat diseases that are caused by increased activity of XO. In vitro bioassays are used to examine test material for XO inhibition, as inhibitors of XO may be potentially useful for the treatment of gout or other XO induced diseases. Several authors reported on the XO inhibitory potential of traditionally used medicinal plants.

1. Introduction

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide, superoxide radical anion, hydroxyl radical, alkylperoxyl radical, nitric oxide, and singlet oxygen are often associated with some physiopathological states in human. Oxidative stress, caused by an imbalance between antioxidant systems and the production of oxidants, including ROS, is considered to contribute to a wide variety of degenerative processes and diseases such as atherosclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s dementia, and reperfusion injury of brain or heart [1, 2] and also can be associated with the pathogenesis of various conditions such as aging, arthritis, cancer, and inflammation [2, 3]. ROS are generated inside the human body as a consequence of the exposure to a multitude of exogenous chemicals in our ambient environment like during UV light irradiation and by X-rays and gamma rays or produced during metal catalyzed reactions [4] and/or a number of endogenous metabolic processes involving redox enzymes and bioenergetics electron transfer [5]. Endogenous factors leading to formation of ROS can be neutrophils and macrophages during inflammation or byproducts of mitochondrial catalyzed electron transport reactions and various other mechanisms [6]. Endogenous sources of ROS include mitochondria, cytochrome P450 metabolism, peroxisomes, and inflammatory cell activation [7], so as other cellular sources of superoxide radicals present such as the enzyme xanthine oxidase, which catalyzes the reaction of hypoxanthine to xanthine and xanthine to uric acid. In both steps, molecular oxygen is reduced, forming the superoxide anion followed by the generation of hydrogen peroxide [8].

Besides these, many studies have now confirmed that exogenic antioxidants, especially supplied by foods, are essential for counteracting oxidative stress. These antioxidants mainly come from plants in the form of phenolic compounds (flavonoids, phenolic acids and alcohols, stilbenes, tocopherols, and tocotrienols) [9]. Many studies have suggested that flavonoids exhibit biological activities, including antiallergenic, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and vasodilating actions. These pharmacological effects are linked to the antioxidant properties of flavonoids. Protective effects of flavonoids are ascribed to their capacity to suppress ROS formation by inhibiting some enzymes or chelating trace elements involved in free radical production, scavenge radical species and more specially the ROS, and improve regulation antioxidant defense [1013].

The aim of this study is to give an overview of methods for isolation and determination of XO activity.

2. Xanthine Oxidase: Mechanism of Action

In 1902, Schardinger [14] showed that milk contains an enzyme capable of oxidizing aldehydes to acids, accompanied by the reduction of methylene blue; this enzyme was then commonly called the “Schardinger enzyme.” In 1922, Morgan et al. [15] showed that milk contains an enzyme capable of oxidizing xanthine and hypoxanthine, with the concomitant reduction of O2 to H2O2, and this enzyme was called XO. Hass and Hill [16] and Hass and Lee [17] reported that milk contains a substance, which they called “itate,” capable of oxidizing nitrite to nitrate in the presence of an aldehyde and O2 under other conditions, and that milk could reduce nitrate to nitrite. In 7 1938, Booth [18] presented strong evidence that the Schardinger enzyme was, in fact, XO.

XO is a homodimer with molecule mass of 290 kDa. Xanthine oxidase belongs to the molybdenum-protein family containing one molybdenum, one of the flavin adenine dinucleotides (FAD), and two iron-sulfur (2Fe-2S) centers of the ferredoxin type in each of its two independent subunits. The enzyme contains two separated substrate-binding sites. XO catalysed the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine and subsequently to uric acid [3234]. During the reoxidation of XO, molecular oxygen acts as electron acceptor, producing superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide [35]. During these reactions, superoxide anion radicals () and H2O2 are formed [35]. Superoxide anion radicals spontaneously or under the influence of enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) transformed into hydrogen peroxide and oxygen. These reactions can be written as follows [36] and on Scheme 1:

Uric acid is breakdown product of ingested and endogenously synthesized purines. DNA and RNA are degraded into purine nucleotides and bases, which are then metabolized, via the action of xanthine oxidase, to xanthine and uric acid. These later steps are irreversible and generate superoxide anions. Uric acid undergoes no further metabolism in humans and is excreted by the kidneys and intestinal tract [37].

According to this higher concentrations of uric acid may be response to the higher levels of xanthine oxidase activity and to the oxidative stress, which is characteristic for many vascular disease states [38]. The overactivity of XO results in a condition known as gout [39], a common rheumatic disease and an acute inflammatory arthritis [40]. The treatment for hyperuricemia and gout is either increasing the excretion of uric acid or reducing the uric acid production.

Xanthine oxidase inhibitors (XOI) are very useful for this [19]. The inhibition of XO reduces both vascular oxidative stress and circulating levels of uric acid. The inhibition of XO by allopurinol is showed in Figure 1.

Thus, XO inhibitors may be useful for treatment of many other diseases [41, 42]. Among the many known XO inhibitors, allopurinol, oxypurinol, and febuxostat have been used widely for the treatment of hyperuricemia and gout [43]. XO inhibitors can act either at the purine binding site such as allopurinol [44, 45] or at the FAD cofactor site such as benzimidazole [46]. XO inhibitors act by blocking the biosynthesis of uric acid from purine in the body [47] and it is believed that either increasing the excretion of uric acid or reducing the uric acid production helps to reduce the risk of gout [48].

3. Isolation and Purification of XO

Isolation of XO, as the widespread enzymes among different species, involves the extraction of the enzyme from a wide range of materials (bacteria, milk, organs of different animals, etc.) and its purification from crude extract. XO is concentrated in the milk fat/lipid globule membrane (MFGM), in which it is the second most abundant protein, after butyrophilin. Therefore, all isolation methods use cream as the starting material; the cream is washed and churned to yield a crude MFGM preparation, dissociating and reducing agents are used to liberate XO from membrane lipoproteins, and some form of chromatography is used for purification [49].

Since the discovery of XO many authors tried to purify and characterize this enzyme. Schardinger [14] is a partially purified XO and found that reduced activity of the enzyme is not only a consequence of the removal of fat from milk, but also to reduce the concentration of the enzyme on the surface due to the absorption of fat molecules. XO from milk was highly purified by Ball in 1939 [50]. He used continuous steps of centrifugation on milk in order to separate cream layer rich in XO. Ball [50] separated XO from cream. Since then, XO has been isolated and purified by several authors [51, 52]. Hart and coworkers [53] prepared XO from milk according to the procedure described earlier by Palmer et al. [54]. They separated cream from milk and then added salicylate and EDTA as concentrated solutions to the cream.

The published purification procedures for xanthine oxidase include proteolytic cleavage, calcium chloride treatment, several ammonium sulfate fractionations, dialysis, and several chromatographic steps [55, 56]. Özer et al. [57] isolated XO from fresh bovine milk modifying previous purification procedures to achieve high-yield purification procedure. They added EDTA and toluene in fresh milk, and after the milk was churned and cooled, the (NH4)2SO4 was added. The suspension was centrifuged and the precipitate formed was discarded. The supernatant was brought to 50% saturation with solid ammonium sulfate.

Baghiani et al. [29] purified XO from mammalian milk (bovine), in the presence of 10 mM of dithiothreitol, by ammonium sulphate fractionation, followed by affinity chromatography on heparin agarose.

Zhang et al. [58] isolated and purified XO from Arthrobacter M3. The Arthrobacter M3 culture was transferred into induction medium. The cells were harvested by centrifugation and were resuspended in sodium phosphate.

4. XO Activity Assay: Medicinal Importance

Determining the content and activities of XO can be used for diagnostic purposes. The most frequently used method for the determination of XO activity is described by Marcocci et al. [59] and Cos et al. [34]. The measurement is carried out in buffer pH 7.4, which is the most common carbonate or phosphate puffer, at 25 or 37°C. The incubation period is made ​​by various authors from 15 to 30 min. EDTA is often added to complexation of metals present in the test sample. Spectrophotometric determination of XO activity is based on measuring uric acid production from xanthine or hypoxanthine substrate at around 295 nm. The assay mixture always contains xanthine as a substrate and sample. Reaction is initiated by adding the XO. Higher values ​​indicate a pathological condition.

Some studies support the hypothesis that uric acid is connected with elevated vascular events in patients with hypertension, diabetes, and known cardiovascular disease [6063]. The treatment for hyperuricemia and gout is either increasing the excretion of uric acid or reducing the uric acid production. Xanthine oxidase inhibitors (XOI) are very useful for this [19]. The inhibition of XO reduces both vascular oxidative stress and circulating levels of uric acid. Allopurinol is XOI with high potential. Inhibitory activities of plant extracts and their constituents are compared with the activity of allopurinol as standard. In Table 1 is given the assay procedure of effect of plant extract on xanthine oxidase activity.


ReferenceTested sampleAssay procedures

[19]Erythrinastricta Roxb. fractionsSample fraction (1 mL, 5–100 μg/mL), phosphate buffer (pH 7.5) (2.9 mL), xanthine oxidase (0.1 mL, 0.1 units/mL in phosphate buffer); preincubation 15 min (25°C); substrate solution (2 mL, 150 μM xanthine in buffer); incubation 30 min (25°C); HCl (1 mL, 1 M)

[20]Lanostanoids from Ganoderma tsugae Test solution, 70 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.5); enzyme solution (0.1 units/mL in 70 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.5)); preincubation 25°C for 15 min; substrate (150 μM xanthine in the same buffer)

[21]Food extracts and componentsTest sample, xanthine (0.8 mL, 150 μM), hydroxylamine (0.2 mM), and EDTA (0.1 mM), all in sodium phosphate buffer (0.2 M, pH 7.5); XO (0.2 mL, 23.42 mili, 0.2 M phosphate buffer); incubation 30 min (37°C); HCl (0.1 mL, 5 M)

[22]Malaysian medicinal plantSodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.5) (300 μL, 50 mM), 100 μL of sample solution in distilled water or DMSO, enzyme solution (100 μL, 0.2 units/mL of xanthine oxidase in phosphate buffer), 100 μL of distilled water; preincubation 15 min (37°C); xanthine (200 μL, 0.15 mM); incubation 30 min (37°C); 200 μL of 0.5 M HCl

[23]Edible plants of the Turkmen Sahra regionPlant extract (0.250 mL in 50 mM potassium phosphate buffer, pH = 7.4), xanthine (0.330 mL, 0.15 mM), potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) (0.385 mL, 50 mM); XO (0.035 mL, in 50 mM potassium phosphate buffer)

[24]Anacardic acidSodium carbonate buffer containing 0.1 mM EDTA (pH 10.0) (2.76 mL, 40 mM), xanthine (0.06 mL, 10 mM), sample (0.06 mL in DMSO); xanthine oxidase (0.12 mL, 0.04 units)

[25]Czech medicinal plantsPhosphate buffer (pH 7.5) (400 μL, 120 mmol/L), xanthine (pH 7.5) (330 μL, 150 μmol/L), extract stock solution (250 μL), enzyme solution (20 μL 0.5 units/mL in buffer)

[26]Centaurium erythraea infusionXanthine (44 μM in 1 μM NaOH), XO (0.29 units/mL in 0.1 M EDTA), lyophilized infusion (5.2, 10.4, 20.8, 41.7, 83.3, and 166.7 µg/mL)

[27]Dried S. anacardiumseeds0.1 U/mL XO, 0.2 mL xanthine (0.26 M) in 50 mM phosphate buffer (pH = 7.4)

Xanthine oxidase inhibitors (XOI) are typically used in the treatment of nephropathy and renal stone diseases linked to hyperuricemia. There has been recent interest in the potential benefit of XOI in the prevention of vascular disease, because of emerging evidence suggesting a role for serum uric acid in the development of cardiovascular disease; the enzyme is an important source of oxidative stress in the vasculature [64]. XOI are agents that directly inhibit the synthesis of uric acid in vivo. Certain active constituents present in crude plant extracts like flavonoids and polyphenolic compounds have been reported to possess XOI [65, 66]. These findings have opened the possibility of isolation of new natural compounds, which can be possible inhibitors of XO, and led to the growing interest in the investigation of medicinal plants. The activity of flavonoids as inhibitors of xanthine oxidase in vitro has been reported. The absence of a hydroxyl group at C-3 enhances slightly the inhibition effect on XO [34, 67, 68].

In traditional medicine are used many herbs and their extracts in the treatment of various diseases that are the result of increased XO activity. Scientists have studied why some plants and their extracts have an inhibitory effect on the activity of XO (Table 3) [69].

In Table 2 are given plant extract and pure compounds as potent XOI.


ReferencePlantExtract or compoundInhibition effect IC50 or % of inhibition

[28]Semecarpus anacardium Fractionated methanolic extract by hexane, ethyl acetate, and butanol
Isolated compound: tetrahydroamentoflavone (THA)
THA
IC50 100 nM

[29]Ajuga iva L.Crude 85% methanol extract fractionated by chloroform (CE), ethyl acetate (EAE), and water (AE)IC50 3.878–5835
μM/quercetin equivalent (QE)

[30]Teucrium polium Methanol (ME), chloroform (CE), and ethyl acetate (EAE) crude extractsCE 0.79, ME 10.59, EAE 11.75 μM/QE

[21]Food extractsVarious extracts and compoundsHesperetin 35 μM/QE
Theaflavin-3,3′-digallate 49 µM/QE
Cranberry juice, purple grape juice, and black tea
IC50 2.4–5.8% of extracts
Sage, cinnamon, thyme, and rosemary infusions IC50 12.9–20.4% of infusion

[31]FlavonoidsGenistein, apigenin, quercetin, rutin, and astilbinIn vitro: no significant inhibitory effect
In vivo: quercetin, rutin, and astilbin-potent XOI

[20]Ganoderma tsugae Murr. (Polyporaceae)CE isolated compounds: new lanostanoids: sugaric acids A, B, and C, tsugarioside A, and four known compounds, 3β-hydroxy-5α-lanosta-8,24-dien-21-oic acid, 3-oxo-5α-lanosta-8,24-dien-21-oic acid, ergosta-7,22-dien-3β-ol, and 2β,3α,9α-trihydroxy-5α-ergosta-7,22-diene
ME: two new lanostanoids, sugariosides B and C, and a mixture of the already known compounds 5α,8α-epidioxyergosta-6,22-dien-3β-ol and 5α,8α-epidioxyergosta-6,9(11),22-trien-3β-ol
Potent XOI

[25]Plant species from Czech RepublicDifferent crude plant extractsMethylene chloride, ME of Populus nigra and Betula pendula, with IC50 of 8.3 and 25.9 µg/mL,
80% EE of Caryophyllus aromaticus and Hypericum perforatum, 50 µg/mL

[19]Erythrina stricta (Papilionaceae) distributed in India, China, Thailand, and VietnamFractions of the hydromethanolic extract of leavesChloroform fraction (IC50 21.2 ± 1.6 µg/mL),
pet. ether (IC50 30.2 ± 2.2 µg/mL),
ethyl acetate (IC50 44.9 ± 1.4 µg/mL),
and residual fraction (IC50 100 ± 3.3 µg/mL)

[26]Centaurium erythraea (Gentianaceae)C. erythraea flowering tops infusion
Identified compound: several esters of hydroxycinnamic acids, namely, p-coumaric, ferulic, and sinapic acids
Noncompetitively inhibiting xanthine oxidase


CompoundsXO IC50 (µM) ± SD

(±)-Taxifolin>100
(+)-Catechin>100
(−)-Epicatechin>100
(−)-Epigallocatechin>100
4′-Hydroxyflavanone>30
Naringenin>50
7-Hydroxyflavanone38.0 ± 7.0
Chrysin0.84 ± 0.13
Apigenin0.70 ± 0.23
Luteolin0.55 ± 0.04
Baicalein2.79 ± 0.01
3-Hydroxyflavone>100
Galangin1.80 ± 0.07
Kaempferol1.06 ± 0.03
Quercetin2.62 ± 0.13
Fisetin4.33 ± 0.19
Morin10.1 ± 0.70
Myricetin2.38 ± 0.13
Allopurinol0.24 ± 0.01
Luteolin + epigallocatechin (1 : 1)0.76 ± 0.08

The structure-activity relationship of flavonoids as inhibitors of xanthine oxidase and as scavengers of the superoxide radical, produced by the action of the enzyme xanthine oxidase, was investigated. The hydroxyl groups at C-5 and C-7 and the double bond between C-2 and C-3 were essential for a high inhibitory activity on xanthine oxidase. Flavones showed slightly higher inhibitory activity than flavonols [34].

5. Conclusions

This review is an overview of methods for the isolation and determination of XO activity in vivo and in vitro and inhibition by plant extracts and their constituents. For isolation the most used methods are extraction, centrifugation, and chromatographic separation. Plant extracts and their constituents show good inhibitor activity and therefore may have a positive impact on the prevention of disease caused by increased activity of XO. Elevated concentrations of uric acid in the blood stream of human body lead to formation of gout, characterized by hyperuricemia and recurrent attacks of arthritis, so xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitors may serve as therapeutic agents for hyperuricemia and/or gout. Xanthine oxidase inhibitors are agents that directly inhibit the synthesis of uric acid in vivo. Certain active constituents present in crude plant extracts like flavonoids and polyphenolic compounds have been reported to possess XOI. These findings have opened the possibility of isolation of new natural compounds, which can be potent inhibitors of XO, and led to the growing interest in the investigation of medicinal plants.

Conflict of Interests

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.

Acknowledgment

Financial support of this work is provided by the Serbian Ministry of Education and Science, Project no. ON 172047.

References

  1. K. Sachidanandam, S. C. Fagan, and A. Ergul, “Oxidative stress and cardiovascular disease: antioxidants and unresolved issues,” Cardiovascular Drug Reviews, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 115–132, 2005. View at: Google Scholar
  2. B. Halliwell and J. M. C. Gutteridge, “Free radicals, ageing and disease,” in Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine, pp. 422–437, Clarendron Press, Oxford, UK, 1989. View at: Google Scholar
  3. U. Gawlik-Dziki, M. Świeca, D. Sugier, and J. Cichocka, “Comparison of in vitro lipoxygenase, xanthine oxidase inhibitory and antioxidant activity of Arnica montana and Arnica chamissonis tinctures,” Acta Scientiarum Polonorum, Hortorum Cultus, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 15–27, 2011. View at: Google Scholar
  4. E. Cadenas, “Biochemistry of oxygen toxicity,” Annual Review of Biochemistry, vol. 58, pp. 79–110, 1989. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  5. G.-R. Zhao, Z.-J. Xiang, T.-X. Ye, Y.-J. Yuan, and Z.-X. Guo, “Antioxidant activities of Salvia miltiorrhiza and Panax notoginseng,” Food Chemistry, vol. 99, no. 4, pp. 767–774, 2006. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  6. E. Cadenas and K. J. A. Davies, “Mitochondrial free radical generation, oxidative stress, and aging,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 29, no. 3-4, pp. 222–230, 2000. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  7. M. Inoue, E. F. Sato, M. Nishikawa et al., “Mitochondrial generation of reactive oxygen species and its role in aerobic life,” Current Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 10, no. 23, pp. 2495–2505, 2003. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  8. M. Valko, M. Izakovic, M. Mazur, C. J. Rhodes, and J. Telser, “Role of oxygen radicals in DNA damage and cancer incidence,” Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 266, no. 1-2, pp. 37–56, 2004. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  9. M. Laguerre, J. Lecomte, and P. Villeneuve, “Evaluation of the ability of antioxidants to counteract lipid oxidation: existing methods, new trends and challenges,” Progress in Lipid Research, vol. 46, no. 5, pp. 244–282, 2007. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  10. M. Ferrali, C. Signorini, B. Caciotti et al., “Protection against oxidative damage of erythrocyte membrane by the flavonoid quercetin and its relation to iron chelating activity,” FEBS Letters, vol. 416, no. 2, pp. 123–129, 1997. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  11. A. J. Elliott, S. A. Scheiber, C. Thomas, and R. S. Pardini, “Inhibition of glutathione reductase by flavonoids. A structure-activity study,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 44, no. 8, pp. 1603–1608, 1992. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  12. R. Hirano, W. Sasamoto, A. Matsumoto, H. Itakura, O. Igarashi, and K. Kondo, “Antioxidant ability of various flavonoids against DPPH radicals and LDL oxidation,” Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 357–362, 2001. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  13. N. Cotelle, J.-L. Bernier, J.-P. Catteau, J. Pommery, J.-C. Wallet, and E. M. Gaydou, “Antioxidant properties of hydroxy-flavones,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 35–43, 1996. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  14. F. Schardinger, “Ueber das Verhalten der Kuhmilchgegen Methylenblau und seine Verwendungzur Unterscheidung von ungekochterund gekochter Milch,” Zeitschrift für Untersuchung der Nahrungs- und Genussmittel, vol. 5, no. 22, pp. 1113–1121, 1902. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  15. E. J. Morgan, C. P. Stewart, and F. G. Hopkins, “On the anaerobic and aerobic oxidation of xanthin and hypoxanthin by tissues and by milk,” Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, vol. 94, no. 657, pp. 109–131, 1922. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  16. P. Hass and T. G. Hill, “Observations on certain reducing and oxidizing reactions in milk,” Biochemical Journal, vol. 17, pp. 671–682, 1923. View at: Google Scholar
  17. P. Hass and B. Lee, “Further observations on certain reducing and oxidizing reactions in milk,” Biochemical Journal, vol. 18, pp. 614–620, 1924. View at: Google Scholar
  18. V. H. Booth, “The specificity of xanthine oxidase,” Biochemical Journal, vol. 32, pp. 494–502, 1938. View at: Google Scholar
  19. M. Umamaheswari, K. AsokKumar, A. Somasundaram, T. Sivashanmugam, V. Subhadradevi, and T. K. Ravi, “Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of some Indian medical plants,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 109, no. 3, pp. 547–551, 2007. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  20. K.-W. Lin, Y.-T. Chen, S.-C. Yang, B.-L. Wei, C.-F. Hung, and C.-N. Lin, “Xanthine oxidase inhibitory lanostanoids from Ganoderma tsugae,” Fitoterapia, vol. 89, no. 1, pp. 231–238, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  21. T. P. Dew, A. J. Day, and M. R. A. Morgan, “Xanthine oxidase activity in vitro: effects of food extracts and components,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 53, no. 16, pp. 6510–6515, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  22. S. M. N. Azmi, P. Jamal, and A. Amid, “Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity from potential Malaysian medicinal plant as remedies for gout,” International Food Research Journal, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 159–165, 2012. View at: Google Scholar
  23. S. M. Motamed and F. Naghibi, “Antioxidant activity of some edible plants of the Turkmen Sahra region in northern Iran,” Food Chemistry, vol. 119, no. 4, pp. 1637–1642, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  24. N. Masuoka and I. Kubo, “Characterization of xanthine oxidase inhibition by anacardic acids,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta—Molecular Basis of Disease, vol. 1688, no. 3, pp. 245–249, 2004. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  25. J. Havlik, R. G. de la Huebra, K. Hejtmankova et al., “Xanthine oxidase inhibitory properties of Czech medicinal plants,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 132, no. 2, pp. 461–465, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  26. P. Valentão, E. Fernandas, F. Carvalho, P. B. Andrade, R. M. Seabra, and M. L. Bastos, “Antioxidant activity of Centaurium erythraea infusion evidenced by its superoxide radical scavenging and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 49, no. 7, pp. 3476–3479, 2001. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  27. A. Nagao, M. Seki, and H. Kobayashi, “Inhibition of xanthine oxidase by flavonoids,” Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry, vol. 63, no. 10, pp. 1787–1790, 1999. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  28. S. Boumerfeg, A. Baghiani, M. Djarmouni et al., “Inhibitory Activity on xanthine oxidase and antioxidant properties of Teucrium polium L. extracts,” Chinese Medicine, vol. 3, pp. 30–41, 2012. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  29. A. Baghiani, S. Boumerfeg, M. Adjadj et al., “Antioxidants, free radicals scavenging and xanthine oxidase inhibitory potentials of Ajuga iva L. extracts,” Free Radicals and Antioxidants, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 21–30, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  30. J. Huang, S. Wang, M. Zhu, J. Chen, and X. Zhu, “Effects of genistein, apigenin, quercetin, rutin and astilbin on serum uric acid levels and xanthine oxidase activities in normal and hyperuricemic mice,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 49, no. 9, pp. 1943–1947, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  31. Y.-T. Tung and S.-T. Chang, “Inhibition of xanthine oxidase by Acacia confusa extracts and their phytochemicals,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 781–786, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  32. F. Candan, “Effect of Rhus coriaria L. (Anacardiaceae) on superoxide radical scavenging and xanthine oxidase activity,” Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 59–62, 2003. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  33. A. Mittal, A. R. J. Phillips, B. Loveday, and J. A. Windsor, “The potential role for xanthine oxidase inhibition in major intra-abdominal surgery,” World Journal of Surgery, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 288–295, 2008. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  34. P. Cos, L. Ying, M. Calomme et al., “Structure-activity relationship and classification of flavonoids as inhibitors of xanthine oxidase and superoxide scavengers,” Journal of Natural Products, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 71–76, 1998. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  35. E. E. Kelley, N. K. H. Khoo, N. J. Hundley, U. Z. Malik, B. A. Freeman, and M. M. Tarpey, “Hydrogen peroxide is the major oxidant product of xanthine oxidase,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 493–498, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  36. J. Flemmig, K. Kuchta, J. Arnhold, and H. W. Rauwald, “Olea europaea leaf (Ph.Eur.) extract as well as several of its isolated phenolics inhibit the gout-related enzyme xanthine oxidase,” Phytomedicine, vol. 18, no. 7, pp. 561–566, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  37. J. Dawson and M. Walters, “Uric acid and xanthine oxidase: future therapeutic targets in the prevention of cardiovascular disease?” British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 62, no. 6, pp. 633–644, 2006. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  38. F. J. Nieto, C. Iribarren, M. D. Gross, G. W. Comstock, and R. G. Cutler, “Uric acid and serum antioxidant capacity: a reaction to atherosclerosis?” Atherosclerosis, vol. 148, no. 1, pp. 131–139, 2000. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  39. A. Burke, E. Smyth, and G. A. FitzGerald, “Analgesic–antipyretic agents; pharmacotherapy of gout,” in The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, L. L. Brunton, J. S. Lazo, and K. L. Parker, Eds., pp. 706–710, McGraw-Hill Medical Publishing Division, New York, NY, USA, 11th edition, 2006. View at: Google Scholar
  40. H. K. Choi, D. B. Mount, and A. M. Reginato, “Pathogenesis of gout,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 143, no. 7, pp. 499–516, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  41. M. T. T. Nguyen, S. Awale, Y. Tezuka, Q. Le Tran, and S. Kadota, “Xanthine oxidase inhibitors from the heartwood of Vietnamese Caesalpinia sappan,” Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 53, no. 8, pp. 984–988, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  42. P. Higgins, L. D. Ferguson, and M. R. Walters, “Xanthine oxidase inhibition for the treatment of stroke disease: a novel therapeutic approach,” Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 399–401, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  43. T. M. Ngoc, N. M. Khoi, D. T. Ha et al., “Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of constituents of Cinnamomum cassia twigs,” Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters, vol. 22, no. 14, pp. 4625–4628, 2012. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  44. R. Hille and V. Massey, “Tight binding inhibitors of xanthine oxidase,” Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 249–263, 1981. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  45. T. R. Hawkes, G. N. George, and R. C. Bray, “The structure of the inhibitory complex of alloxanthine (1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine-4,6-diol) with the molybdenum centre of xanthine oxidase from electron-paramagnetic-resonance spectroscopy,” Biochemical Journal, vol. 218, no. 3, pp. 961–968, 1984. View at: Google Scholar
  46. E. B. Skibo, “Noncompetitive and irreversible inhibition of xanthine oxidase by benzimidazole analogues acting at the functional flavin adenine dinucleotide cofactor,” Biochemistry, vol. 25, no. 15, pp. 4189–4194, 1986. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  47. T. Unno, A. Sugimoto, and T. Kakuda, “Xanthine oxidase inhibitors from the leaves of Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 93, no. 2-3, pp. 391–395, 2004. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  48. M. Umamaheswari, K. Asokkumar, A. T. Sivashanmugam, A. Remyaraju, V. Subhadradevi, and T. K. Ravi, “In vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of the fractions of Erythrina stricta Roxb.,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 124, no. 3, pp. 646–648, 2009. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  49. P. F. Fox and A. L. Kelly, “Indigenous enzymes in milk: overview and historical aspects—part 1,” International Dairy Journal, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 500–516, 2006. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  50. E. G. Ball, “Xanthine oxidase, purification and properties,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 128, pp. 51–67, 1939. View at: Google Scholar
  51. N. Y. Farkye, “Indigenous enzymes in milk; other enzymes,” in Advanced Dairy Chemistry Volume 1: Proteins, P. F. Fox, Ed., pp. 339–367, Elsevier Applied Science, London, UK, 1992. View at: Google Scholar
  52. N. Y. Farkye, “Indigenous enzymes in milk: other enzymes,” in Advanced Dairy Chemistry, P. F. Fox and P. L. H. McSweeney, Eds., Elsevier, 2003. View at: Google Scholar
  53. L. I. Hart, M. A. McGartoll, H. R. Chapman, and R. C. Bray, “The composition of milk xanthine oxidase,” Biochemical Journal, vol. 116, no. 5, pp. 851–864, 1970. View at: Google Scholar
  54. G. Palmer, R. C. Bray, and H. Beinert, “Direct studies on the electron transfer sequence in xanthine oxidase by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy I. Techniques and description of spectra,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 239, pp. 2657–2666, 1964. View at: Google Scholar
  55. C. A. Nelson and P. Handler, “Preparation of bovine xanthine oxidase and the subunit structures of some iron flavoproteins.,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 243, no. 20, pp. 5368–5373, 1968. View at: Google Scholar
  56. W. R. Waud, F. O. Brady, R. D. Wiley, and K. V. Rajagopalan, “A new purification procedure for bovine milk xanthine oxidase: effect of proteolysis on the subunit structure,” Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, vol. 169, no. 2, pp. 695–701, 1975. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  57. N. Özer, M. Müftüoglu, D. Ataman, A. Ercan, and I. H. Ögüs, “Simple, high-yield purification of xanthine oxidase from bovine milk,” Journal of Biochemical and Biophysical Methods, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 153–159, 1999. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  58. Y. Zhang, Y. Xin, H. Yang et al., “Novel affinity purification of xanthine oxidase from Arthrobacter M3,” Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences, vol. 906, pp. 19–24, 2012. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  59. L. Marcocci, L. Packer, M.-T. Droy-Lefaix, A. Sekaki, and M. Gardes-Albert, “Antioxidant action of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761,” Methods in Enzymology, vol. 234, pp. 462–475, 1994. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  60. J. F. Baker, E. Krishnan, L. Chen, and H. R. Schumacher, “Serum uric acid and cardiovascular disease: recent developments, and where do they leave us?” The American Journal of Medicine, vol. 118, no. 8, pp. 816–826, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  61. S. Kivity, E. Kopel, E. Maor et al., “Association of serum uric acid and cardiovascular disease in healthy adults,” The American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 111, no. 8, pp. 1146–1151, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  62. S. G. Wannamethee, “Serum uric acid and risk of coronary heart disease,” Current Pharmaceutical Design, vol. 11, no. 32, pp. 4125–4132, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  63. E. J. Newman, F. S. Rahman, K. R. Lees, C. J. Weir, and M. R. Walters, “Elevated serum urate concentration independently predicts poor outcome following stroke in patients with diabetes,” Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 79–82, 2006. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  64. P. Higgins, J. Dawson, and M. Walters, “The potential for xanthine oxidase inhibition in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease,” Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology, vol. 2009, Article ID 282059, 9 pages, 2009. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  65. W. S. Chang, Y. J. Lee, F. J. Lu, and H. C. Chiang, “Inhibitory effects of flavonoids on xanthine oxidase,” Anticancer Research, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 2165–2170, 1993. View at: Google Scholar
  66. L. Costantino, A. Albasini, G. Rastelli, and S. Benvenuti, “Activity of polyphenolic crude extracts as scavengers of superoxide radicals and inhibitors of xanthine oxidase,” Planta Medica, vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 342–344, 1992. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  67. D. E. C. van Hoorn, R. J. Nijveldt, P. A. M. van Leeuwen et al., “Accurate prediction of xanthine oxidase inhibition based on the structure of flavonoids,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 451, no. 2, pp. 111–118, 2002. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  68. R. Arimboor, M. Rangan, S. G. Aravind, and C. Arumughan, “Tetrahydroamentoflavone (THA) from Semecarpus anacardium as a potent inhibitor of xanthine oxidase,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 133, no. 3, pp. 1117–1120, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  69. M. T. Nguyen, S. Awale, Y. Tezuka, J. Y. Ueda, Q. Tran, and S. Kadota, “Xanthine oxidase inhibitors from the flowers of Chrysanthemum sinense,” Planta Medica, vol. 72, no. 1, pp. 46–51, 2006. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar

Copyright © 2015 Danijela A. Kostić et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

15693 Views | 4863 Downloads | 33 Citations
 PDF  Download Citation  Citation
 Download other formatsMore
 Order printed copiesOrder