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Journal of Chemistry
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 1073691, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/1073691
Research Article

The Effects of Controlled Drainage on N Concentration and Loss in Paddy Field

1State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute, Nanjing 210029, China
2Efficient Irrigation and Drainage and Environment of Agriculture Water and Soil, South Area Key Laboratory, the Ministry of Education, College of Water Conservancy and Hydropower, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China

Received 13 October 2015; Accepted 21 March 2016

Academic Editor: Yuangen Yang

Copyright © 2016 Bin Lu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

To relieve the situation of the agricultural nonpoint pollution (NPS) in south and east China, paddy field controlled drainage (PFCD) is applied as an important and efficient approach to agricultural water management. A series of PFCD tests at four major growth stages of rice were conducted by use of 18 lysimeters. Concentration of ammonia nitrogen (-N) and nitrate nitrogen (-N) in surface and subsurface paddy water was observed. The results indicated that the concentration of -N and -N in paddy water declined with the persistence of a waterlogged condition. Compared to traditional drainage, PFCD reduced N loss in surface water by 95.6%, 78.7%, 59.6%, and 87.4% at the stage of tillering, jointing-booting, heading-flowering, and milking, respectively. It should be noted that loads of N losses in surface water increased on the fourth day after waterlogging at the jointing-booting and milking stage, and surface water exhibited higher N concentration on the first day after waterlogging at each stage. Therefore, paddy field surface water drainage should be avoided in these periods.