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Journal of Chemistry
Volume 2016, Article ID 2870279, 4 pages
Research Article

Ecotoxicity and Preliminary Risk Assessment of Nonivamide as a Promising Marine Antifoulant

1Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003, China
2University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
3School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Ludong University, Yantai 264025, China

Received 28 February 2016; Accepted 5 April 2016

Academic Editor: Jun Wu

Copyright © 2016 Sujing Liu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The unclear environmental performance of nonivamide limits its application as a marine antifoulant. In this study, the natural degradation of nonivamide was studied in seawater and tap water. The half-life was 5.8 d, 8.8 d, 12.2 d, and 14.7 d in seawater and tap water in photolysis and biolysis, respectively. Furthermore, the ecotoxicity of nonivamide was assessed using marine microalgae, Chlorella vulgaris and Platymonas sp.; values on the growth of Chlorella vulgaris and Platymonas sp. were 16.9 mg L−1 and 19.21 mg L−1, respectively. The toxicity and environmental risk of nonivamide on microalgae were significantly decreased due to the natural degradation in seawater.