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Journal of Chemistry
Volume 2016, Article ID 2940437, 7 pages
Research Article

Electrochemical and Mechanical Failure of Graphite-Based Anode Materials in Li-Ion Batteries for Electric Vehicles

1National Engineering Laboratory for Electric Vehicles and Collaborative Innovation Center of Electric Vehicles in Beijing, School of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China
2Sichuan Provincial Key Lab of Process Equipment and Control, School of Mechanical Engineering, Sichuan University of Science & Engineering, Zigong 643000, China
3Citic Guoan Mengguli Power Source Technology Co., Ltd, Beijing 102200, China

Received 5 June 2016; Revised 16 August 2016; Accepted 18 September 2016

Academic Editor: David Sebastián

Copyright © 2016 Cheng Lin et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Graphite-based anode materials undergo electrochemical reactions, coupling with mechanical degradation during battery operation, can affect or deteriorate the performance of Li-ion batteries dramatically, and even lead to the battery failure in electric vehicle. First, a single particle model (SPM) based on kinetics of electrochemical reactions was built in this paper. Then the Li-ion concentration and evolution of diffusion induced stresses (DISs) within the SPM under galvanostatic operating conditions were analyzed by utilizing a mathematical method. Next, evolution of stresses or strains in the SPM, together with mechanical degradation of anode materials, was elaborated in detail. Finally, in order to verify the hypothesis aforementioned surface and morphology of the graphite-based anode dismantled from fresh and degraded cells after galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show that large volume changes of anode materials caused DISs during Li-ion insertion and extraction within the active particles. The continuous accumulations of DISs brought about mechanical failure of the anode eventually.