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Journal of Chemistry
Volume 2016, Article ID 5491693, 8 pages
Research Article

Specific Anthocyanin Contents of Whole Blue Maize Second-Generation Snacks: An Evaluation Using Response Surface Methodology and Lime Cooking Extrusion

1DIPA, Universidad de Sonora, Boulevard Luis Encinas y Rosales s/n, 83000 Hermosillo, SON, Mexico
2CINVESTAV-Unidad Querétaro, Libramiento Norponiente No. 2000, Fraccionamiento Real de Juriquilla, 76230 Querétaro, QRO, Mexico
3Universidad de Monterrey, Avenida Ignacio Morones Prieto No. 4500 Poniente, 66238 San Pedro Garza García, NL, Mexico
4UAEMex, Campus Universitario “El Cerrillo”, El Cerrillo Piedras Blancas s/n, 50200 Toluca, MEX, Mexico
5Programa Regional del Noroeste para el Doctorado en Biotecnología, Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, Avenida de Las Américas y Boulevard Universitarios s/n, 80010 Culiacán, SIN, Mexico

Received 24 September 2015; Accepted 3 January 2016

Academic Editor: Patricia Valentao

Copyright © 2016 Anayansi Escalante-Aburto et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Lime cooking extrusion (LCE) is a widely applied technology for producing second-generation snacks, as an alternative to traditional nixtamalization (TN). Pigmented maize has been used to produce snacks with similar organoleptic characteristics to TN products and to obtain a product with additional functional benefits due to the anthocyanic compounds contained in those grains. However, during the process, anthocyanins are degraded, and several chemical modifications occur. Response surface methodology is applied to evaluate extrusion factors and their effects on the response variables of extrudates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in specific anthocyanins after extrusion in second-generation blue maize snacks. Three anthocyanins were identified and quantified by HPLC-UV-DAD: cyanidin 3-glucoside and pelargonidin 3-glucoside, which have been previously reported in blue maize and its products, and cyanidin 3,5-diglucoside. Higher retention values were found in the extrudates making LCE a viable option for producing second-generation blue maize snacks.