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Journal of Chemistry
Volume 2016, Article ID 8782469, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/8782469
Research Article

Adsorption of Lead Ions from Aqueous Solutions Using Gamma Irradiated Minerals

1Facultad de Química, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Paseo Colón Intersección Paseo Tollocan S/N, 50120 Toluca, MEX, Mexico
2Laboratorio de Investigación y Desarrollo de Materiales Avanzados (LIDMA), Facultad de Química, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Km. 12 de la Carretera Toluca-Atlacomulco, 50200 San Cayetano, MEX, Mexico
3Departamento de Ingeniería y Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Iberoamericana, Prol. Paseo de la Reforma 880, Lomas de Santa Fe, Álvaro Obregón, 01210 Ciudad de México, Mexico
4Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, AP 18-1027, Col. Escandón, Delegación Miguel Hidalgo, 11801 Ciudad de México, Mexico

Received 5 July 2016; Revised 7 September 2016; Accepted 20 October 2016

Academic Editor: Julie J. M. Mesa

Copyright © 2016 Julián Cruz-Olivares et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

For the first time, an irradiated mineral was used as a novel modified adsorbent for lead removal of aqueous solutions. The effects of gamma radiation doses and temperature on the lead adsorption capacity of an unknown mineral were evaluated. The results show that, in the chemisorption process, the highest adsorption capacity (9.91 mg/g) and the maximum percentage of lead removal (99.1%) were reached at 40°C when using an irradiated mineral at 150 kGy. The improvement on the lead adsorption speed was the most important feature of the irradiated mineral. The experimental results were successfully correlated with the pseudo second-order kinetic model. For all results, the average absolute relative deviations (AARD) were less than 13.20%, and the correlation factor () was higher than 0.998. Moreover, the average values of the thermodynamic parameters ( J/mol,  J/mol, and  J/mol K) suggest the feasibility of the proposed process, in terms of the endothermic and irreversible chemisorption results; moreover, ion exchange was evaluated through the EDS results. The X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the unknown irradiated mineral is mainly composed of quartz (SiO2), calcite (CaCO3), and calcium magnesium silicate (Ca0.15Mg0.85) Mg (SiO6).