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Journal of Chemistry
Volume 2016, Article ID 9360230, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/9360230
Research Article

Synthesis of Novel Derivatives of Carbazole-Thiophene, Their Electronic Properties, and Computational Studies

1Chemistry Department, Science Faculty, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
2Physic Department, Science Faculty, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Received 10 January 2016; Accepted 6 April 2016

Academic Editor: Davut Avci

Copyright © 2016 E. F. Damit et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

A series of carbazole-thiophene dimers, P1–P9, were synthesized using Suzuki-Miyaura and Ullmann coupling reactions. In P1–P9, carbazole-thiophenes were linked at the N-9 position for different core groups via biphenyl, dimethylbiphenyl, and phenyl. Electronic properties were evaluated by UV-Vis, cyclic voltammogram, and theoretical calculations. Particularly, the effects of conjugation connectivity on photophysical and electrochemical properties, as well as the correlation between carbazole-thiophene and the core, were studied. Carbazole connecting with thiophenes at the 3,6-positions and the phenyl group as a core group leads to increased stabilization of HOMO and LUMO energy levels where the bandgap () is significantly reduced.