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Journal of Chemistry
Volume 2017, Article ID 1489218, 20 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/1489218
Research Article

Active Razor Shell CaO Catalyst Synthesis for Jatropha Methyl Ester Production via Optimized Two-Step Transesterification

1Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, 94300 Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia
2Department of Chemistry, Bangladesh Army University of Engineering & Technology, Qadirabad Cantonment, Natore 6431, Bangladesh

Correspondence should be addressed to A. N. R. Reddy; moc.liamg@ahdanrama

Received 26 December 2016; Revised 23 February 2017; Accepted 7 March 2017; Published 12 April 2017

Academic Editor: Arghya Narayan Banerjee

Copyright © 2017 A. N. R. Reddy et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Calcium based catalysts have been studied as promising heterogeneous catalysts for production of methyl esters via transesterification; however a few were explored on catalyst synthesis with high surface area, less particle size, and Ca leaching analysis. In this work, an active Razor shell CaO with crystalline size of 87.2 nm, of 92.63 m2/g, pore diameters of 37.311 nm, and pore volume of 0.613 cc/g was synthesized by a green technique “calcination-hydro aeration-dehydration.” Spectrographic techniques TGA/DTA, FTIR, SEM, XRD, BET&BJH, and PSA were employed for characterization and surface morphology of CaO. Two-step transesterification of Jatropha curcas oil was performed to evaluate CaO catalytic activity. A five-factor-five-level, two-block, half factorial, central composite design based response surface method was employed for experimental analysis and optimization of Jatropha methyl ester (JME) yield. The regression model adequacy ascertained thru coefficient of determination (: 95.81%). A JME yield of 98.80% was noted at (3.10 wt.%), (54.24 mol./mol.%), (127.87 min), (51.31°C), and (612 rpm). The amount of Ca leached to JME during 1st and 4th reuse cycles was 1.43 ppm ± 0.11 and 4.25 ppm ± 0.21, respectively. Higher leaching of Ca, 6.67 ppm ± 1.09, was found from the 5th reuse cycle due to higher dispersion of Ca2+; consequently JME yield reduces to 76.40%. The JME fuel properties were studied according to biodiesel standards EN 14214 and comply to use as green biodiesel.