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Journal of Chemistry
Volume 2018 (2018), Article ID 2914313, 10 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/2914313
Research Article

Chemical Characteristics of Precipitation in a Typical Urban Site of the Hinterland in Three Gorges Reservoir, China

1CAS Key Laboratory of Reservoir Environment, Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chongqing 400714, China
2University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
3Key Laboratory of Water Environment Evolution and Pollution Control in Three Gorges Reservoir, Chongqing Three Gorges University, Wanzhou 404100, China
4CAS Center for Excellence in Regional Atmospheric Environment, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021, China

Correspondence should be addressed to Fumo Yang; nc.ca.tigic@gnaymf

Received 26 October 2017; Revised 5 January 2018; Accepted 18 February 2018; Published 19 March 2018

Academic Editor: Franco Tassi

Copyright © 2018 Liuyi Zhang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Major water-soluble ions were analyzed for two-year precipitation samples in Wanzhou, a typical urban site of the hinterland of Chinese Three Gorges Reservoir. The pH values of the precipitation were in the range of 4.0 to 8.3, and the volume-weighted mean (VWM) value was 5.0. The concentration order of anions and cations was as follows: and , respectively. Good correlations were found between and , and Ca2+, and , and and Ca2+, implying their co-occurrence in the precipitation, most likely as (NH4)2SO4, (NH4)HSO4, NH4NO3, CaSO4, and Ca(NO3)2. The sum of all measured ions was 416.4 μeq L−1, indicating serious air pollution in Wanzhou. and Ca2+ were the most important ions neutralizing the acidic compounds in the precipitation; their major sources included agricultural activity and crustal dust. Local anthropogenic activities, for example, coal burning and traffic related sources, contributed most of and . The equivalent concentration ratio of was 4.5, indicating that excessive emission of sulfur was the main reason leading to the precipitation acidity in Wanzhou. However, this ratio was lower than the ratio (5.9) in 2000s in Wanzhou, indicating that the contribution of nitric acid to the acidity of precipitation was strengthening.