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Journal of Chemistry
Volume 2018, Article ID 8521012, 8 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/8521012
Research Article

Paraquat in Surface Water of Some Streams in Mai Chau Province, the Northern Vietnam: Concentrations, Profiles, and Human Risk Assessments

1Institute of Environmental Technology, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Cau Giay, Hanoi, Vietnam
2Hanoi University of Science and Technology, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Cau Giay, Hanoi, Vietnam

Correspondence should be addressed to Nguyen Thi Hue; nv.nvtei@3002euhtn

Received 16 August 2017; Revised 25 December 2017; Accepted 31 December 2017; Published 25 February 2018

Academic Editor: Jaime Villaverde

Copyright © 2018 Nguyen Thi Hue et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The concentrations and profiles of paraquat, a kind of herbicide, were studied in water samples taken from a stream flowing through five villages of Mai Chau province, the Northern Vietnam, during dry and rainy seasons. In this study, paraquat was found at almost the sampling sites and showed an average concentration for paraquat to be 30.69 μg/L and with a maximum of 134.08 μg/L. The herbicide concentration tended to be the highest on the dry season because of the least rainfall and also the highest evaporation rate of water in the stream. For risk assessment of human health, a hazard index (HI) value was calculated for estimating the risk towards the residents. HQ in the dry and rainy season is from 0.0001 to 0.2448 and from 0.0001 to 0.0279, respectively. The results showed a minimum risk; however, there are concerns toward the danger of long-term exposure to the residents from the stream that could affect their life quality.