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Journal of Chemistry
Volume 2019, Article ID 7162948, 7 pages
Research Article

New Bioactive Metabolites from the Thermophilic Fungus Penicillium sp. Isolated from Ghamiqa Hot Spring in Saudi Arabia

Department of Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2457, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence should be addressed to Raha Orfali; as.ude.usk@ilafror and Shagufta Perveen; moc.oohay@000297atfugahs

Received 14 March 2019; Revised 12 June 2019; Accepted 24 June 2019; Published 6 August 2019

Academic Editor: Artur M. S. Silva

Copyright © 2019 Raha Orfali and Shagufta Perveen. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The thermophilic fungus Penicillium species was isolated from Ghamiqa hot spring sediments in Saudi Arabia. Extract of Penicillium species cultured on solid rice medium yielded two new compounds 3-(furan 12-carboxylic acid)-6-(methoxycarbonyl)-4-hydroxy-4-methyl-4 and 5-dihydro-2H-pyran 1 3α-methyl-7-hydroxy-5-carboxylic acid methyl ester-1-indanone 2. In addition, three known compounds, austinol 3, emodin 4, and 2-methyl-penicinoline 5, were isolated. The structures of the new compounds were unambiguously determined by comprehensive analysis of spectroscopic data, one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy, and high-resolution mass spectrometry. All isolated metabolites were studied for their antibiotic effect against several pathogenic bacteria and for their cytotoxicity against the lymphoma human cancer cell line HTB-176. Austinol 3 exhibited strong antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa bacterial strain with an MIC value of 0.13 ± 0.4 µg·mL−1, whereas emodin 4 demonstrated significant cytotoxicity against the tested HTB-176 cell line with an IC50 value of 2 ± 7.6 µM, while the other compounds were moderate to inactive with IC50 ranging from 4.3 ± 0.25–22 ± 2.94 µM in this assay.