Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Chemistry
Volume 2019, Article ID 8489671, 6 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/8489671
Review Article

Review of Carbonation Resistance in Hydrated Cement Based Materials

1Department of Chemistry, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya
2Department of Physical Sciences, University of Embu, Embu, Kenya

Correspondence should be addressed to Joseph Mwiti Marangu; moc.liamg@1102ugnaramj

Received 31 August 2018; Accepted 27 November 2018; Published 1 January 2019

Academic Editor: Michael D. Sevilla

Copyright © 2019 Joseph Mwiti Marangu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Blended cements are preferred to Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) in construction industry due to costs and technological and environmental benefits associated with them. Prevalence of significant quantities of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere due to increased industrial emission is deleterious to hydrated cement materials due to carbonation. Recent research has shown that blended cements are more susceptible to degradation due to carbonation than OPC. The ingress of CO2 within the porous mortar matrix is a diffusion controlled process. Subsequent chemical reaction between CO2 and cement hydration products (mostly calcium hydroxide [CH] and calcium silicate hydrate [CSH]) results in degradation of cement based materials. CH offers the buffering capacity against carbonation in hydrated cements. Partial substitution of OPC with pozzolanic materials however decreases the amount of CH in hydrated blended cements. Therefore, low amounts of CH in hydrated blended cements make them more susceptible to degradation as a result of carbonation compared to OPC. The magnitude of carbonation affects the service life of cement based structures significantly. It is therefore apparent that sufficient attention is given to carbonation process in order to ensure resilient cementitious structures. In this paper, an indepth review of the recent advances on carbonation process, factors affecting carbonation resistance, and the effects of carbonation on hardened cement materials have been discussed. In conclusion, carbonation process is influenced by internal and external factors, and it has also been found to have both beneficial and deleterious effects on hardened cement matrix.

1. Introduction

Cement is the main building binder used in housing and general construction throughout the world [1]. Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) is the most common type of cement used in construction [1, 2]. However, OPC production process involves significant environmental damage with respect to carbon dioxide (CO2) production and raw material requisition [3]. Cement manufacturing releases CO2 in the atmosphere when calcium carbonate (CaCO3) is heated [4]. The gas is also emitted when petroleum based fuel is burnt in the kiln during clinkerisation process [4]. The cement industry is the second largest CO2 emitting industry behind power generation[5]. CO2 is considered as the main greenhouse gas causing global warming and climate change in the world. There is an increasing demand for eco- friendly cement in the world in order to meet the sustainable development goals.

The increased emission of CO2 subsequently increases the atmospheric CO2 reaction with cement based materials. Ingress of CO2 in hydrated cement materials is mainly a diffusion controlled process [5]. Increased atmospheric CO2 results in serious durability concerns for field-exposed reinforced concretes due to carbonation. The effects carbonation-induced corrosion accounts for 78% of reduction in service life of cement based materials and increased maintenance related costs[5].

The durability of reinforced cement based structures is a global pervasive problem[69]. Poor understanding of deterioration processes and inadequate ingress resistance criteria for aggressive substances such as CO2, chlorides and sulphates, among others on site concrete changes in cement properties and construction practices are some of the reasons that account for the deterioration of cement based structures[6, 1017]. As a result, many cement based structures deteriorate prematurely resulting in short service life[1719]. Repair and maintenance costs are greatly increased in the attempts to mitigate the adverse effects of aggressive substances[6, 1823]. In this paper, an indepth review on current advances on carbonation process, factors affecting carbonation, and effects of carbonation on hardened cement materials have been discussed in detail.

2. Hydration of Cement

The main clinker phases present in cements are tricalcium silicate (C3S), dicalcium silicate (C3S), tricalcium aluminate (C3A), and tetra calcium aluminoferrate (C4AF). The hydration of these phases in OPC is given in [24]Hydration of C3S and C2S results in the formation of CH and CSH. CSH is a cementious material that imparts strength to cement based materials [24]. The hydration products of and C4AF are not of significance to the strength of hardened cement [24]. At the early ages of mortar/concrete curing, CH is useful since it provides the necessary alkalinity to the hardened cement [24]. In blended cements, CH produced during the hydration of OPC reacts with active silica and alumina in presence of water to form more CSH and calcium aluminate hydrate (CAH) during the pozzolanic reaction as shown in [24]The consumption of CH during the pozzolanic reaction in blended cements results in lower amount of CH and increased CSH [2529]. The CH and CSH are the most susceptible phases to carbonation [30]. The amount CH and severity of CO2 attack on CSH has been found to greatly affect the rate of carbonation process [30].

3. Carbonation Process

Carbonation refers to the reaction of hydration products dissolved in pore water (mostly CH and CSH) with CO2 in the atmosphere [31]. In hydrated cement based materials, carbonation occurs when they are exposed to atmospheric CO2 or dissolved CO2 in water in form of carbonic acid [32]. The CH and CSH are the major phases attacked by CO2 during carbonation as shown in (7) and (8), respectively [33]; Equation (7) represents moderate carbonation occurring on the surface layer of cement based materials leading to the formation of CaCO3[33]. The CaCO3 formed is deposited on the pore network in the hydrated cement matrix resulting in pore refinement of the carbonated layer. This is beneficial since pore refinement subsequently results in increased strength, reduced porosity and improved durability of hydrated cement [34]. Conversely, according to (8), excess ingress of CO2 attacks CSH resulting in its disintegration and subsequent loss of strength in cement based structures [35]. Additionally, during carbonation, OH- present in CH is consumed resulting in the decrease of pore solution pH [36]. In case of reinforced concrete, reduction in the pH value leads to the destruction of protective passive surface layer around steel reinforcement resulting in rebar corrosion [36]. In areas with high concentration of dissolved CO2 for example in estuaries, the effects of carbonation are more deleterious since carbonic water is more acidic in seawater than fresh water [37]. This can be worsened by the decaying organic matter releasing CO2. The carbonation related chemical reactions that result in the degradation of cement based materials due to dissolved CO2 are presented in [13, 38]Equation (9) represents the formation of carbonic acid (H2CO3) from dissolved CO2 present either in decaying organic matter or polluted water bodies [13, 38]. Based on (10) and (11), H3O+ produced results in significant reduction in the pore solution pH in hydrated cement matrix [13]. Reduction in the alkalinity of the pore solution is deleterious since it results in carbonation-induced corrosion of rebars through dissolution of its passive surface layer [39]. In addition, (13) shows that significant penetration of CO2 results in the conversion of insoluble CaCO3 to soluble Ca(HCO3)2 which is easily leached out thus decreasing the porosity of hydrated cement [13].

In conclusion the mechanism of carbonation in hydrated cements has been summarized as[17]Step I: Diffusion of CO2(g) in the gaseous layer surrounding the solidStep II: Diffusion of CO2(g) through the solidStep III: Solvation of CO2(g) to CO2(aq) in the pore waterStep IV: Hydration of CO2(aq) to H2CO3(aq)Step V: Ionization of H2CO3 to H+, HC and CStep VI: Dissolution of calcium containing phases to Ca2+Step VII: Nucleation of CaCO3(s)Step VIII: Precipitation of solid phases.

4. Factors Affecting Carbonation Resistance

4.1. Relative Humidity

The extent of carbonation largely depends on the existing Relative Humidity (RH) upon which the hydrated cement exists[40]. RH determines the long term availability of moisture/water in the hardened cement. Water influences the reactivity and diffusion of carbon dioxide in the pore network of hydrated cement. According to [17], water is essential for the dissolution of Ca2+ from calcium containing phases such as (CH), hydration of CO2 to form H2CO3 and besides solvation of gaseous CO2 to form aqueous CO2. In presence of insufficient water, CO2 and CH do not ionised fully. Conversely, in presence of sufficient water, carbonation process takes place leading to the formation of pore filling solid CaCO3 in the hydrated cement pore network as the diffusivity of CO2 is lower in water than in air.

RH determines the quantity of atmospheric water upon which cement based material is exposed during curing [31, 36, 4042]. The existing water in the hydrated cementitious system especially during curing process primarily depends on the pore network as well as external RH. Moisture exchanges usually occur at any given RH between the pores in hydrated cement based materials and the atmosphere until an equilibrium is established [43]. The pore sizes in hydrated cement that remains saturated can be related to the RH by the Kelvin equation given in [44]where r is the radius of the pores (m), γ is the surface tension of water (0.076 N m−1), M is the molar mass of water (0.018 kg mol−1), θ is the contact angle, is the density of water (1000 kg m−3), and H is the external RH.

Assuming that the contact angle between water and hardened cement is 0° and (14) can be reduced to the form given in [44]According to [44, 45] (15) is strictly applicable to capillaries of uniform dimension solely to provide qualitative approximate values due to the rather complex pore geometries in cementitious systems. Based on (15), when the external RH is zero, the water content in the hydrated cement material is also zero and therefore carbonation reactions do not take place [46, 47]. On the other hand, assuming that the RH is 100%, the cementitious system is therefore fully saturated, since all pores are filled with water which inhibits the diffusion pathway of CO2[20]. It is apparent that the RH has a considerable influence on the magnitude of carbonation [44].

Several researchers have conducted experimental work to determine the optimum RH for carbonation process [20, 4042, 48]. In most of the cementitious materials, carbonation is more rapid at an external relative humidity of 50-60% [10, 18, 49]. At 50-60 % RH, the equilibrium water content in the hydrated cementitious materials tends to reach optimum for the carbonation reaction. Generally, the ideal RH for optimum carbonation is at 50 % (range 40-70 %). This is because when the RH is less than 40 %, then CO2 cannot dissolve. Conversely, when the RH is greater than 70%, the diffusion of CO2 is inhibited by the water that has filled the pores and hence CO2 cannot ingress in the cement based structure [31, 50].

4.2. Concentration of Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

The rate of carbonation in the hydrated cementitious materials depends on the concentration of environmental CO2 [51]. Generally, a high concentration of CO2 increases the diffusion rate of CO2 into the cementitious matrix and hence increases the carbonation rate [52]. However, the use of a high concentration of CO2 also increases the water content in the pores because of the high rate of reaction and evolution of water within the specimen[50]. Therefore, if thin specimens are considered at the optimum RH, carbonation in low concentrations of CO2 proceeds at a faster rate than in high concentrations [30]. When there are minimal increases atmospheric CO2 concentrations, the rates of carbonation reactions are increased and this has great positive influence on strength development of hydrated cementitious materials.

4.3. Type of Cement

Blended cements have higher carbonation rate than OPC [52]. In blended cements, pozzolanic reactions also consume CH[5355]. As a result, less CH is available and the rate carbonation is higher than in OPC which contains higher amount of CH[30]. Moreover, the lower CH availability results in more CSH carbonation. In contrast with CH carbonation, CSH carbonation does not densify the pore structure [52].

4.4. Porosity

Highly porous cement materials allow greater penetration of CO2 in the bulk of hydrated cementitious materials. Porosity in combination with factors such RH has a significant impact on CO2 diffusion, i.e., the pore sizes. At a specific RH, the finer the pore size is, the easier the capillary condensation occurs according to the Kelvin equation. For instance, when mortars are exposed to a 57% RH environment, a calculated Kelvin radius would be 4 nm. When the cement matrix has a larger fraction of pores below this pore size, CO2 diffusion will be very slow since pores with sizes below 4 nm will be filled by condensed water.

Reference [11] studied the effect of crack opening on carbon dioxide penetration in cracked mortar samples. The authors observed that the presence of cracks in hydrated cement matrix promote the ingress of CO2 due to increased porosity.

4.5. Concentration of Ca(OH)2

The amount of calcium hydroxide present in cementitious materials determines the durability of cement based structures against carbonation since it maintains a high pH of 12.6[38]. It is accepted that the calcium hydroxide content has a significant impact on the carbonation rate, since higher total calcium hydroxide has higher CO2 binding capacity [56].

5. Effects of Carbonation on Hydrated Cement

Apart from the effect of carbon dioxide on Ca(OH)2, CSH, and other CO2 reactive compounds, carbonation has been noted to influence other material properties and effects. Some of the major effects are introduced in this section.

5.1. Compressive Strength

Higher compressive strengths are obtained in mortars cured at 90 percent than their corresponding mortars cured at 60 percent relative humidity [57]. This can be attributed to the different curing humidity conditions that the mortars were subjected to. Low humidity (60 percent) allows more ingress of CO2 than mortars cured at high humidity (90 percent) [12]. CH, is one of the products formed during hydration of cement that readily reacts with CO2 resulting in precipitation of sparingly soluble calcium carbonate (CaCO3 as shown in and (8)[13, 5860].

Moderate carbonation process occurs on the surface layer of cement based materials leading to the formation of CaCO3. The CaCO3 formed is deposited on the pore network in the hydrated cement matrix resulting in pore refinement of the carbonated layer [6, 21, 22, 61, 62]. This is beneficial since pore refinement subsequently results in increased strength, reduced porosity and improved durability of hydrated cement. This explains the increase in compressive strength of mortars/concrete with continued curing when exposed to CO2 laden environment. Conversely, as shown in (8), continued ingress of CO2 attacks CSH resulting in its disintegration and subsequent loss of strength in cement based structures [6, 21, 22, 61, 62]. This enhanced at low RH. This explains why mortars cured at low RH approximately 60% exhibit lower compressive strength than those cured at 90 % RH.

5.2. PH of Pore Solution

Carbonation process occurring in cementitious materials results in the change in the pH of pore water [63]. The pore water has a solvent action on cementitious materials. The dissolution of the Ca(OH)2 and CSH buffer the pH of pore solution in equilibrium with the cementitious materials to values between 10.5 and 12.5 [64]. The consumption of Ca(OH)2 during carbonation results in relatively lower concentration of Ca(OH)2 in the pore water resulting in lower pH [64]. The ingress and reaction of CO2 with Ca2+ in the pore solution and subsequent dissolution of Ca(OH)2 and CSH. The consumption of Ca(OH)2 and CSH leads to a drop of pH values of pore solution[17]. A fully carbonated surface shows a pH of approximately 8. In reinforced concrete, decreased pH in pore water is deleterious since it promotes corrosion resulting in reduced service life of cement based structures [65].

5.3. Porosity

The precipitation of the calcium carbonate produced by carbonation can lead step by step to a clogging of the pores [35, 66]. A reduction of 5-12% of the open porosity of concrete degraded by carbonation [67]. Another study showed a decrease of up to 26% in the pore volume of a cement-solidified waste system [68].

6. Conclusion

In conclusion, carbonation process is influenced by internal and external factors, and it has also been found to have both beneficial and deleterious effects on hardened cement matrix. With increased CO2 emission globally, there is need to closely conduct carbonation tests on various cement based structures/materials. The emerging infrastructural development in estuaries calls for enhanced carbonation studies on cement based materials used.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Acknowledgments

This review is part of the Ph.D. research project work financially supported by the National Research Fund grant at Kenyatta University in Kenya.

References

  1. O. Joshua, “Development of a fully pozzolanic binder for sustainable construction: whole cement replacement in concrete applications,” International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 1–12, 2018. View at Google Scholar
  2. J. M. Mwiti, “Chloride ingress resistance in selected calcined - clay - portland cement blends,” International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Research, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 2347–3878, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  3. J. M. Marangu, J. Muthengia, and J. Wa-Thiong’o, “Performance of potential pozzolanic cement in chloride media,” Journal of Applied Chemistry, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 36–44, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. P. J. Rayner, M. R. Raupach, M. Paget, P. Peylin, and E. Koffi, “A new global gridded data set of CO2,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol. 115, no. D19, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. R. M. Andrew, “Global CO2 emissions from cement production,” Earth System Science Data, vol. 10, pp. 195–217, 2018. View at Google Scholar
  6. L. Czarnecki and P. Woyciechowski, “Prediction of the reinforced concrete structure durability under the risk of carbonation and chloride aggression,” Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences—Technical Sciences, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 173–181, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. O. S. B. Al-Amoudi, W. A. Al-Kutti, S. Ahmad, and M. Maslehuddin, “Correlation between compressive strength and certain durability indices of plain and blended cement concretes,” Cement and Concrete Composites, vol. 31, no. 9, pp. 672–676, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. G. Dhinakaran, K. R. Kumar, S. Vijayarakhavan, and M. Avinash, “Strength and durability characteristics of ternary blend and lightweight HPC,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 134, pp. 727–736, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. M. Khana, M. Jamil, M. Karimc, and M. Zaind, “Strength and durability of mortar and concrete containing rice husk ash: A review,” World Applied Sciences Journal, vol. 32, pp. 752–765, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  10. N. I. Fattuhi, “Concrete carbonation as influenced by curing regime,” Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 426–430, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. S. Alahmad, A. Toumi, J. Verdier, and R. François, “Effect of crack opening on carbon dioxide penetration in cracked mortar samples,” Materials and Structures, vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 559–566, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. J. P. Balayssac, Ch. H. Détriché, and J. Grandet, “Effects of curing upon carbonation of concrete,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 91–95, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. S. Boualleg, M. Bencheikh, L. Belagraa, A. Daoudi, and M. A. Chikouche, “The Combined Effect of the Initial Cure and the Type of Cement on the Natural Carbonation, the Portlandite Content, and Nonevaporable Water in Blended Cement,” Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 2017, 2017. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. K. Abid, R. Gholami, P. Choate, and B. H. Nagaratnam, “A review on cement degradation under CO2-rich environment of sequestration projects,” Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering, vol. 27, pp. 1149–1157, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. G. Cultrone, E. Sebastián, and M. O. Huertas, “Forced and natural carbonation of lime-based mortars with and without additives: Mineralogical and textural changes,” Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 35, no. 12, pp. 2278–2289, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. E. Díaz, R. González, D. Rocha, A. Alujas, and F. Martirena, “Carbonation of Concrete with Low Carbon Cement LC3 Exposed to Different Environmental Conditions,” in Calcined Clays for Sustainable Concrete, F. Martirena, A. Favier, and K. Scrivener, Eds., vol. 16, pp. 141–146, Springer, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. M. Fernández Bertos, S. J. R. Simons, C. D. Hills, and P. J. Carey, “A review of accelerated carbonation technology in the treatment of cement-based materials and sequestration of CO2,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 112, no. 3, pp. 193–205, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. Y. Wang, S. Nanukuttan, Y. Bai, and P. A. M. Basheer, “Influence of combined carbonation and chloride ingress regimes on rate of ingress and redistribution of chlorides in concretes,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 140, pp. 173–183, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. W. Z. Taffesea and E. Sistonen, “Service life prediction of repaired structures using concrete recasting method: state-of-the-art,” Procedia Engineering, vol. 57, pp. 1138–1144, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  20. Y. Zhang and G. Ye, “Development of interior relative humidity due to self-desiccation in blended cementitious system,” in Proceedings of the International RILEM Conference Materials, Systems and Structures in Civil Engineering, K. Kielsgaard Hansen, C. Rode, and L-O. Nilsson, Eds., Segment on Moisture in Materials and Structures, pp. 1–10, RILEM publications S.A.R.L., Paris, France, 2016.
  21. B. Dong, Q. Qiu, J. Xiang, C. Huang, F. Xing, and N. Han, “Study on the carbonation behavior of cement mortar by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy,” Materials , vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 218–231, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. L. S. Ho, K. Nakarai, Y. Ogawa, T. Sasaki, and M. Morioka, “Strength development of cement-treated soils: Effects of water content, carbonation, and pozzolanic reaction under drying curing condition,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 134, pp. 703–712, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. J. Zachar, P. Claisse, T. R. Naik, and E. Ganjian, Eds., Sustainable Construction Materials And Technologies: Second International Conference On Sustainable Construction Materials And Technologies, 28-30 June 2010, Ancona, Italy, Uwm Center For By-Products Utlilization, Milwaukee, WI, USA, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. A. M. Neville, Properties of Concrete, Pearson: Harlow, England, UK; New York, NY, USA, 5th edition, 2011.
  25. J. F. Martirena Hernández, B. Middendorf, M. Gehrke, and H. Budelmannt, “Use of wastes of the sugar industry as pozzolana in lime-pozzolana binders: study of the reaction,” Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 28, no. 11, pp. 1525–1536, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. A. Abdullah, “The effect of various chemical activators on pozzolanic reactivity: A review,” Scientific Research and Essays, vol. 7, no. 7, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  27. F. Avet, R. Snellings, A. Alujas Diaz, M. Ben Haha, and K. Scrivener, “Development of a new rapid, relevant and reliable (R3) test method to evaluate the pozzolanic reactivity of calcined kaolinitic clays,” Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 85, pp. 1–11, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. S. Cara, G. Carcangiu, L. Massidda, P. Meloni, U. Sanna, and M. Tamanini, “Assessment of pozzolanic potential in lime-water systems of raw and calcined kaolinic clays from the Donnigazza Mine (Sardinia-Italy),” Applied Clay Science, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 66–72, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. A. Chakchouk, B. Samet, and T. Mnif, “Study on the potential use of Tunisian clays as pozzolanic material,” Applied Clay Science, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 79–88, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. A. Morandeau, M. Thiéry, and P. Dangla, “Investigation of the carbonation mechanism of CH and C-S-H in terms of kinetics, microstructure changes and moisture properties,” Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 56, pp. 153–170, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. N. Venkat Rao and T. Meena, “A review on carbonation study in concrete,” IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 263, Article ID 032011, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  32. F. Liu, Z. You, X. Yang, and H. Wang, “Macro-micro degradation process of fly ash concrete under alternation of freeze-thaw cycles subjected to sulfate and carbonation,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 181, pp. 369–380, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  33. W. Long, Y. Gu, F. Xing, and K. H. Khayat, “Microstructure development and mechanism of hardened cement paste incorporating graphene oxide during carbonation,” Cement and Concrete Composites, vol. 94, pp. 72–84, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  34. E. A. Khalil and M. Anwar, “Carbonation of ternary cementitious concrete systems containing fly ash and silica fume,” Water Science, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 36–44, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. B. Lu, C. Shi, J. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Effects of carbonated hardened cement paste powder on hydration and microstructure of Portland cement,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 186, pp. 699–708, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  36. V. Shah and S. Bishnoi, “Carbonation resistance of cements containing supplementary cementitious materials and its relation to various parameters of concrete,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 178, pp. 219–232, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  37. C. R. Gagg, “Cement and concrete as an engineering material: an historic appraisal and case study analysis,” Engineering Failure Analysis, vol. 40, pp. 114–140, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  38. S. A. Ghahari, A. M. Ramezanianpour, A. A. Ramezanianpour, and M. Esmaeili, “An accelerated test method of simultaneous carbonation and chloride ion ingress: durability of silica fume concrete in severe environments,” Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 2016, Article ID 1650979, 12 pages, 2016. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. S. Jiang, S. Gao, L. Jiang et al., “Effects of Deoxyribonucleic acid on cement paste properties and chloride-induced corrosion of reinforcing steel in cement mortars,” Cement and Concrete Composites, vol. 91, pp. 87–96, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  40. P. López-Arce, L. S. Gómez-Villalba, S. Martínez-Ramírez, M. Álvarez de Buergo, and R. Fort, “Influence of relative humidity on the carbonation of calcium hydroxide nanoparticles and the formation of calcium carbonate polymorphs,” Powder Technology, vol. 205, no. 1-3, pp. 263–269, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. S. T. Pham, “Experimental investigation and modelling of carbonation process in cement materials,” The Open Civil Engineering Journal, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 116–126, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  42. Y. Bilan, Effect of Relative Humidity and CO2 Concentration on the Properties of Reactive MgO Cement Based Materials [Msc. Thesis], University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada, 2014.
  43. B. Van Belleghem, R. Montoya, J. Dewanckele et al., “Capillary water absorption in cracked and uncracked mortar - A comparison between experimental study and finite element analysis,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 110, pp. 154–162, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. B. Huet, V. Tasoti, and I. Khalfallah, “A review of Portland cement carbonation mechanisms in CO2 rich environment,” Energy Procedia, vol. 4, pp. 5275–5282, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  45. Y. Zhang, M. Zhang, and G. Ye, “Influence of moisture condition on chloride diffusion in partially saturated ordinary Portland cement mortar,” Materials and Structures, vol. 51, no. 2, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  46. S. Chatterji, “An explanation for the unsaturated state of water stored concrete,” Cement and Concrete Composites, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 75–79, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. L. Wang and T. Ueda, “Mesoscale modeling of water penetration into concrete by capillary absorption,” Ocean Engineering, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 519–528, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. M. Arandigoyen, B. Bicer-Simsir, J. I. Alvarez, and D. A. Lange, “Variation of microstructure with carbonation in lime and blended pastes,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 252, no. 20, pp. 7562–7571, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. S. Goñi and A. Guerrero, “Accelerated carbonation of Friedel's salt in calcium aluminate cement paste,” Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 21–26, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  50. H. Cui, W. Tang, W. Liu, Z. Dong, and F. Xing, “Experimental study on effects of CO2 concentrations on concrete carbonation and diffusion mechanisms,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 93, pp. 522–527, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  51. M. Castellote, L. Fernandez, C. Andrade, and C. Alonso, “Chemical changes and phase analysis of OPC pastes carbonated at different CO2 concentrations,” Materials and Structures, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 515–525, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  52. J. H. M. Visser, “Influence of the carbon dioxide concentration on the resistance to carbonation of concrete,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 67, pp. 8–13, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. E. Gruyaert, K. V. Tittelboom, H. Rahier, and N. D. Belie, “Activation of pozzolanic and latent-hydraulic reactions by alkalis in order to repair concrete cracks,” Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, vol. 27, no. 7, Article ID 04014208, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  54. C. He, B. Osbaeck, and E. Makovicky, “Pozzolanic reactions of six principal clay minerals: Activation, reactivity assessments and technological effects,” Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 25, no. 8, pp. 1691–1702, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. G. Mertens, R. Snellings, K. Van Balen, B. Bicer-Simsir, P. Verlooy, and J. Elsen, “Pozzolanic reactions of common natural zeolites with lime and parameters affecting their reactivity,” Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 233–240, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. V. Rostami, Y. Shao, A. J. Boyd, and Z. He, “Microstructure of cement paste subject to early carbonation curing,” Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 186–193, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. W. Ashraf, “Carbonation of cement-based materials: Challenges and opportunities,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 120, pp. 558–570, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. J. M. Chi, R. Huang, and C. C. Yang, “Effects of carbonation on mechanical properties and durability of concrete using accelerated testing method,” Journal of Marine Science and Technology, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 14–20, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. B. L. D. S. Costa, J. C. D. O. Freitas, P. H. S. Santos, D. M. D. A. Melo, R. G. D. S. Araujo, and Y. H. de Oliveira, “Carbonation in oil well Portland cement: Influence of hydration time prior to contact with CO2,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 159, pp. 252–260, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. J. Liu, S. Yao, M. Ba, Z. He, and Y. Li, “Effects of carbonation on micro structures of hardened cement paste,” Journal of Wuhan University of Technology-Materials Science Edition, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 146–150, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  61. M. Criado, A. Palomo, and A. Fernández-Jiménez, “Alkali activation of fly ashes. Part 1: effect of curing conditions on the carbonation of the reaction products,” Fuel, vol. 84, no. 16, pp. 2048–2054, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. K.-I. Song, J.-K. Song, B. Y. Lee, and K.-H. Yang, “Carbonation characteristics of alkali-activated blast-furnace slag mortar,” Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 2014, Article ID 326458, 11 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  63. X.-M. Wan, F. H. Wittmann, T.-J. Zhao, and H. Fan, “Chloride content and pH value in the pore solution of concrete under carbonation,” Journal of Zhejiang University Science A, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 71–78, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. E. Possan, W. A. Thomaz, G. A. Aleandri, E. F. Felix, and A. C. P. dos Santos, “CO2 uptake potential due to concrete carbonation: A case study,” Case Studies in Construction Materials, vol. 6, pp. 147–161, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. A. M. Rashad, “An overview on rheology, mechanical properties and durability of high-volume slag used as a cement replacement in paste, mortar and concrete,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 187, pp. 89–117, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  66. B. Wu and G. Ye, “Development of porosity of cement paste blended with supplementary cementitious materials after carbonation,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 145, pp. 52–61, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. M. Thiéry, P. Faure, A. Morandeau et al., “Effect of carbonation on the microstructure and moisture properties of cement - based materials,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Durability of Building Materials and Components, pp. 1–8, 2011.
  68. R. Malviya and R. Chaudhary, “Factors affecting hazardous waste solidification/stabilization: A review,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 137, no. 1, pp. 267–276, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus