Chemical Constituents, Antioxidant Activities, and Element Concentrations of Rusa Deer Velvet Antler Extracts
Color, texture, percentage yields, testosterone concentrations, antioxidant activities, and essential and toxic element concentrations of velvet antler extracts.
Each value is represented as mean ± SD (n = 3). Extraction yield is expressed as % (g extract/100 g dry velvet antler). Testosterone concentration is calculated as μg/g dry velvet antler. IC50: the inhibitory concentration of the extract needed to inhibit 50% of the DPPH radicals; reducing property: milligram of ascorbic acid equivalent per gram of an extract (mg AAE/g extract); NA: no activity at the tested concentration; ND: not determined. a,b,cValues in the same row with different superscript letters differ significantly ().