Journal of Chemistry The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. The Synthesis of Hydroxybutyrate-Based Block Polyurethane from Telechelic Diols with Robust Thermal and Mechanical Properties Tue, 20 Sep 2016 16:49:05 +0000 A series of novel amphiphilic block polyurethanes (PUHE) have been successfully synthesized by solution polymerization of the derived PHB-diol and poly(ethylene glycol) with a coupling agent of 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI), while the PHB-diol was prepared via the transesterification of PHB and ethylene glycol. The hydroxyl contents in PHB-diols range from 1.36 to 1.99 (the molar ratio) as determined by nonaqueous titration. The molecular weight and chemical compositions of PUHE and PHB-diol were investigated by GPC, 1H NMR, and FTIR in detail, which confirm the successful synthesis of PUHE. The tensile strength and elongation at break of PUHE could reach as high as 20 MPa and 210%, as the content of PHB in PUHE is 33%. TGA curves indicate that block-bonding between PHB-diol and PEG increases the thermal stability of PHB-diol. Film degradation of PUHE was studied by weight loss and scanning electron microscope (SEM). It could be concluded that degradation occurred gradually from the surface to the inside and that the degradation rate could be controlled by adjusting the PHB/PEG ratios. These properties make PUHE able to be used as a biodegradable thermoplastic elastomer. Dan Xue, Xiaodong Fan, Zengping Zhang, and Wei Lv Copyright © 2016 Dan Xue et al. All rights reserved. Fe3O4/Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite: Synthesis and Its Application for Toxic Metal Ion Removal Tue, 20 Sep 2016 16:39:35 +0000 The synthesis of reduced graphene oxide modified by magnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4/rGO) and its application for heavy metals removal were demonstrated. The obtained samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and magnetic measurement. The results showed that the obtained graphene oxide (GO) contains a small part of initial graphite as well as reduced oxide graphene. GO exhibits very high surface area in comparison with initial graphite. The morphology of Fe3O4/rGO consists of very fine spherical iron nanooxide particles in nanoscale. The formal kinetics and adsorption isotherms of As(V), Ni(II), and Pb(II) over obtained Fe3O4/rGO have been investigated. Fe3O4/rGO exhibits excellent heavy metal ions adsorption indicating that it is a potential adsorbent for water sources contaminated by heavy metals. Nguyen Thi Vuong Hoan, Nguyen Thi Anh Thu, Hoang Van Duc, Nguyen Duc Cuong, Dinh Quang Khieu, and Vien Vo Copyright © 2016 Nguyen Thi Vuong Hoan et al. All rights reserved. Geochemical and Isotopic Characterisation of Actual Lacustrine Sediments from the Hydrothermal Lake Specchio di Venere, Pantelleria Island (Italy) Tue, 20 Sep 2016 10:27:03 +0000 Hydrothermal lakes are a very common feature in volcanic environments, and among these lake Specchio di Venere (Pantelleria island, Italy) has attracted the interest of several researchers due to its peculiar characteristics. With the aim of improving the knowledge of its mineralogy, our work pointed out the characterisation of the bottom lake sediments. We collected and analysed 5 sediments cores around the shoreline, determining the mineralogical phases, concentration of major, minor, and trace elements, and the isotopic composition of carbon and oxygen in the carbonate phases. Our findings remarked a general compositional homogeneity in both the vertical and horizontal distribution of mineral phases, with the exception of peculiar geological niches connoted by biological and hydrothermal activities. Marianna Cangemi, Paolo Madonia, Sergio Bellomo, and Ygor Oliveri Copyright © 2016 Marianna Cangemi et al. All rights reserved. Retracted: Evaluation of the Stability of the Total Antioxidant Capacity, Polyphenol Contents, and Starch Hydrolase Inhibitory Activities of Kombucha Teas Using an In Vitro Model of Digestion Thu, 15 Sep 2016 14:06:27 +0000 Journal of Chemistry Copyright © 2016 Journal of Chemistry. All rights reserved. Shelf-Life Prediction of Extra Virgin Olive Oils Using an Empirical Model Based on Standard Quality Tests Wed, 14 Sep 2016 13:13:08 +0000 Extra virgin olive oil shelf-life could be defined as the length of time under normal storage conditions within which no off-flavours or defects are developed and quality parameters such as peroxide value and specific absorbance are retained within accepted limits for this commercial category. Prediction of shelf-life is a desirable goal in the food industry. Even when extra virgin olive oil shelf-life should be one of the most important quality markers for extra virgin olive oil, it is not recognised as a legal parameter in most regulations and standards around the world. The proposed empirical formula to be evaluated in the present study is based on common quality tests with known and predictable result changes over time and influenced by different aspects of extra virgin olive oil with a meaningful influence over its shelf-life. The basic quality tests considered in the formula are Rancimat® or induction time (IND); 1,2-diacylglycerols (DAGs); pyropheophytin (PPP); and free fatty acids (FFA). This paper reports research into the actual shelf-life of commercially packaged extra virgin olive oils versus the predicted shelf-life of those oils determined by analysing the expected deterioration curves for the three basic quality tests detailed above. Based on the proposed model, shelf-life is predicted by choosing the lowest predicted shelf-life of any of those three tests. Claudia Guillaume and Leandro Ravetti Copyright © 2016 Claudia Guillaume and Leandro Ravetti. All rights reserved. Assessment of Physicochemical Properties of Tequila Brands: Authentication and Quality Thu, 08 Sep 2016 10:59:38 +0000 Several physicochemical properties were measured in commercial tequila brands: conductivity, density, pH, sound velocity, viscosity, and refractive index. Physicochemical data were analyzed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA), cluster analysis, and the one-way analysis of variance to identify the quality and authenticity of tequila brands. According to the Principal Component Analysis, the existence of 3 main components was identified, explaining the 87.76% of the total variability of physicochemical measurements. In general, all tequila brands appeared together in the plane of the first two principal components. In the cluster analysis, four groups showing similar characteristics were identified. In particular, one of the clusters contains some tequila brands that are not identified by the Regulatory Council of Tequila and do not meet the quality requirements established in the Mexican Official Standard 006. These tequila brands are characterized by having higher conductivity and density and lower viscosity and refractive index, determined by one-way analysis of variance. Therefore, these economical measurements, PCA, and cluster analysis can be used to determinate the authenticity of a tequila brand. Alejandra Carreon-Alvarez, Amaury Suárez-Gómez, Florentina Zurita, Sergio Gómez-Salazar, J. Felix Armando Soltero, Maximiliano Barcena-Soto, Norberto Casillas, Porfirio-Gutierrez, and Edgar David Moreno-Medrano Copyright © 2016 Alejandra Carreon-Alvarez et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Carbon Supported Pt Catalysts on Selective Hydrogenation of Cinnamaldehyde Wed, 07 Sep 2016 14:05:17 +0000 Selective hydrogenation of cinnamaldehyde (CAL) to cinnamyl alcohol (COL) is of both fundamental and industrial interest. It is of great significance to evaluate the possible differences between different supports arising from metal dispersion and electronic effects, in terms of activity and selectivity. Herein, Pt catalysts on different carbon supports including carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and reduced graphene oxides (RGO) were developed by a simple wet impregnation method. The resultant catalysts were well characterized by XRD, Raman, N2 physisorption, TEM, and XPS analysis. Applied in the hydrogenation of cinnamaldehyde, 3.5 wt% Pt/CNT shows much higher selectivity towards cinnamyl alcohol (62%) than 3.5 wt% Pt/RGO@SiO2 (48%). The enhanced activity can be ascribed to the high graphitization degree of CNTs and high density of dispersed Pt electron cloud. Qing Han, Yunfei Liu, Dong Wang, Fulong Yuan, Xiaoyu Niu, and Yujun Zhu Copyright © 2016 Qing Han et al. All rights reserved. Cellular Composition Changes and Nitrogen Uptake under Extra-Limited Nitrogen Conditions by Thermosynechococcus sp. CL-1 Carbon Biofixation Wed, 07 Sep 2016 11:55:40 +0000 Two types of culture systems were used (continuous and batch) which were fed using a simulated absorbent from a scrubber with carbonate/bicarbonate as the carbon source and nitrate as the nitrogen source by a thermophile strain, Thermosynechococcus sp. CL-1 (TCL-1) at 50°C. The lipid, carbohydrate, and protein cellular components which can be used as bioenergy precursors along with their content as a function of various C/N ratios are quantified. Maximum lipid productivity of about 150 mg L−1 d−1 is obtained while the CO2 uptake rate is 917 mg L−1 d−1 at a dilution rate of 0.06 h−1 when both carbon and nitrogen sources are not limited. With high range of nitrogen concentrations batch culture test, TCL-1 reveals extra-high affinity on nitrogen source under limited carbon source conditions since the affinity constant is 0.12 mM. In addition, the flow of carbon fixed during photosynthesis seems to switch from the protein synthesis pathway to forming carbohydrate rather than lipid under N-limitation and a high C/N ratio for TCL-1, resulting in a maximal carbohydrate content of 61%. Consequently, TCL-1 is an appropriate candidate to treat the wastewater of environment and produce the bioenergy precursors under extreme limited nitrogen conditions. Tseng Chi-Ming, Ko Tzu-Hsing, Hsueh Hsin-Ta, Chen Hsing-Hui, Ray Dah-Tong, Shen Yun-Hwei, and Chu Hsin Copyright © 2016 Tseng Chi-Ming et al. All rights reserved. Ultrasonic Extraction of Oil from Caesalpinia spinosa (Tara) Seeds Tue, 30 Aug 2016 09:28:42 +0000 Oil extracted from the seeds of Caesalpinia spinosa (common name: tara) can be used in a number of applications. In the present study, tara seed oil was obtained by ultrasonic extraction. The effects of different solvents, particle sizes in the ground seed samples, extraction times, ultrasonication powers, extraction temperatures, and liquid–solid ratios on the yield of tara seed oil were investigated. The yield from the ultrasonic extraction was compared with that from traditional Soxhlet extraction. The results showed that ultrasonic extraction could be completed in a shorter time with reduced solvent consumption. The yield of tara seed oil increased with increasing ultrasonication power and extraction temperature. Gas chromatography was used to analyze the fatty acid compositions of the oils extracted by the two methods. The fatty acid compositions of the oils from both extraction methods were similar, which indicates that ultrasonic extraction is a viable alternative means of extraction. It is a rapid, efficient, and simple method for production of lipids from tara seeds. Zhan-jun Li, Feng-jian Yang, Lei Yang, and Yuan-Gang Zu Copyright © 2016 Zhan-jun Li et al. All rights reserved. Distribution and Health Risk Assessment on Dietary Exposure of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Vegetables in Nanjing, China Mon, 29 Aug 2016 09:57:49 +0000 In a market basket study made in Nanjing, China, in which the most common consumed nine kinds of vegetables foodstuffs were sampled, the contents of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed using gas chromatography with mass spectrometer detector (GC-MS). The results showed that the total amount of 16 PAHs was within the range of 60.5~312 ng g−1 (wet weight). The ranking of total concentrations for different types of vegetables in decreasing order was leafy vegetable, fruit vegetable, and rhizome vegetable. Source analysis suggested that coal, oil, or other incomplete combustion of biomass mainly contributed to the concentration of PAHs. The margin of exposure (MOE) approach with age/gender group-specific daily dietary exposure level was used to estimate the carcinogenic risk. The calculated total mean MOE in the case of BaP and PAH4 (sum of BaA, CHR, BbF, and BaP) was 14960 and 7723, respectively, for local residents. In addition, the MOEs in PAH4 for some groups of both male and female were below the critical limit of 10 000 proposed by EFSA. Therefore, health effect owing to the consumption of vegetables on local residents needs high concern. Minmin Wu, Zhonghuan Xia, Qianqian Zhang, Jing Yin, Yanchi Zhou, and Hao Yang Copyright © 2016 Minmin Wu et al. All rights reserved. Rapid Biosynthesis of Gold Nanoparticles by the Extracellular Secretion of Bacillus niabensis 45: Characterization and Antibiofilm Activity Mon, 29 Aug 2016 08:47:44 +0000 The present study demonstrated that the extracellular biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) using B. niabensis 45 may be mediated by a cyclic peptide (P2). The molecular weight of P2 was determined to be about 1122 Da by MALDI-TOF-MS and ESI-MS. A novel protocol for rapid biosynthesis of GNPs using P2 was developed. The results showed that GNP synthesis could be completed in a wide range of temperatures (40–100°C) and pH (6.0–10.0) within few minutes when 9 mL of P2 (2 mg/mL) and 1 mL of HAuCl4 solution (2 mM) were mixed together. The synthesized GNPs were further characterized. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the presence of elemental gold and crystalline structure of the GNPs, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed the formation of spherical metallic GNPs. The size distribution of GNPs calculated using ImageJ software was found to be 10–20 nm. And these GNPs showed excellent antibiofilm activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923. The results revealed microbial cyclic peptides could be used as synthesis of GNPs which had potent antibiofilm potential. Yumei Li, Yamei Li, Qiang Li, Xiangyu Fan, Juan Gao, and Yan Luo Copyright © 2016 Yumei Li et al. All rights reserved. Molecular Modeling Studies of Some Uracil and New Deoxyuridine Derivatives Sun, 28 Aug 2016 11:43:24 +0000 Molecular modeling results reported in this paper are crucial in highlighting the quantitative relationship between the optimized structure and computed molecular properties related to four newly synthesized uracil derivatives with promising biological potential as anticancer bioactive agents. Moreover, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and its tautomers and thiouracils molecular properties are studied and correlated with their biological activities. The great medical importance of these and similar molecular systems requires research on their quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) in order to further improve our knowledge about how receptor binding, selectivity, and pharmacological effects are achieved. Modeling is performed in the ground and the first singlet excited states using density functional theory (DFT) and its time-dependent extension (TD-DFT), respectively. Yousra Abdel-Mottaleb and M. S. A. Abdel-Mottaleb Copyright © 2016 Yousra Abdel-Mottaleb and M. S. A. Abdel-Mottaleb. All rights reserved. Physicochemical Characteristics of River Water Downstream of a Large Tropical Hydroelectric Dam Sun, 28 Aug 2016 06:27:54 +0000 Water quality in the downstream river of a hydroelectric dam may be affected by the structural design and operation. To date, little is known about the water quality downstream of the largest dam in Malaysia, the Bakun hydroelectric dam. Therefore, the objective of the study was to determine the water quality downstream of the dam when the spillway was closed and when it was opened. Results of the study indicate that the dam plays a significant role in regulating the water quality downstream of it. When the spillway was closed, pH and oxygen were lower in the river where DO was below 5 mg/L. When the spillway was opened, the water quality improved in terms of oxygen content (>8.0 mg/L), total sulphide (TS), and chemical oxygen demand (COD) but deteriorated in terms of five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), and total phosphorus (TP). Additionally, the intensity of the impacts, particularly BOD5, COD, and TAN, shows a declining trend as distance from the dam increases. This study shows that impacts on the water quality extend to a distance of 32 km from the dam particularly turbidity and DO and opening the spillway changes the water quality significantly. Teck-Yee Ling, Chen-Lin Soo, Teresa Lee-Eng Heng, Lee Nyanti, Siong-Fong Sim, and Jongkar Grinang Copyright © 2016 Teck-Yee Ling et al. All rights reserved. Harmful Chemicals in the Environment 2016 Thu, 25 Aug 2016 16:27:12 +0000 Jian Lu, Patrick C. Wilson, Xianghua Wen, Qiang Jin, and Jun Wu Copyright © 2016 Jian Lu et al. All rights reserved. Use of Moringa oleifera (Moringa) Seed Pods and Sclerocarya birrea (Morula) Nut Shells for Removal of Heavy Metals from Wastewater and Borehole Water Thu, 25 Aug 2016 13:05:53 +0000 Use of nonedible seed pods of Moringa oleifera (Moringa) tree and nutshells of Sclerocarya birrea (Morula) tree for removal of selected metal ions (lead, cadmium, copper, manganese, iron, zinc, and magnesium) from wastewater and borehole water samples was investigated. Removal parameters such as contact time, pH, temperature, particle size, sorbent dose, and initial metal concentration were optimized. Determination of residual metal ions after employing sorbent was done using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS). Using 200 ng synthetic metal ion mixture in 50 mL of water sample, the optimized parameters for Moringa seed pods were 60 min contact time, 1.0 g of sorbent dose, pH 8, 100 μm sorbent particle size, and extraction temp 35°C. While using Morula nutshells, the optimized conditions were 120 min contact time, 2.0 g sorbent dose, pH 8, 100 μm sorbent particle size, and extraction temp of 35°C. The removal efficiency of acid treated sorbents was compared to that of untreated sorbents and it was found to be higher for acid treated sorbents. These nonedible plant parts for Morula and Moringa plants are proposed as a cheap, simple, and an effective alternative for purification of water contaminated with heavy metals. Irene Wangari Maina, Veronica Obuseng, and Florence Nareetsile Copyright © 2016 Irene Wangari Maina et al. All rights reserved. Colloidal Gold Probe-Based Immunochromatographic Strip Assay for the Rapid Detection of Microbial Transglutaminase in Frozen Surimi Wed, 24 Aug 2016 18:02:45 +0000 Adding microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) to frozen surimi to enable the surimi to be sold as a higher-grade product at a higher price defrauds surimi product manufacturers and undercuts legitimate industry prices. Therefore, it is important to develop an accurate method of detecting the presence of MTGase in surimi. In this study, an immunochromatographic strip assay with a colloidal gold antibody probe was successfully developed and used to rapidly and qualitatively detect MTGase in surimi samples. The results were obtained in less than 10 min. The limit for the qualitative detection of MTGase using the immunochromatographic strip assay was identified as 1.0 μg/mL. The results of the immunochromatographic strip analysis of frozen surimi samples were verified by comparison with the results of a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The colloidal gold probe-based immunochromatographic strip assay was thus found to be a rapid, economical, and user friendly method of detecting MTGase in surimi. Daming Fan, Yi Li, Zhennan Gu, Jianlian Huang, Wenguo Zhou, Wenhai Zhang, Jianxin Zhao, and Hao Zhang Copyright © 2016 Daming Fan et al. All rights reserved. Highly Sensitive Micellar Enhanced Spectrofluorimetric Method for Determination of Mirtazapine in Tablets and Human Urine: Application to In Vitro Drug Release and Content Uniformity Test Wed, 24 Aug 2016 08:45:22 +0000 A highly sensitive and simple micelle enhanced spectrofluorimetric method was developed for assaying mirtazapine (MRZ) in REMERON® tablets and spiked human urine directly without the need of derivatizing agent. The basis of the current procedure is the examination of the relative fluorescence intensity (RFI) of MRZ in sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) micellar medium. The RFI of MRZ in water was enhanced markedly on addition of SLS. The RFI was measured at 403 nm after excitation at 320 nm. The fluorescence-concentration relationship was linear over the range 1–500 ng/mL, with lower detection limit of 0.399 ng/mL. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of MRZ in dosage form and spiked human urine. Recovery percentages of MRZ utilizing the current method were , , and % for pure powder, pharmaceutical dosage form, and spiked human urine, respectively. The application of the proposed method was extended to test content uniformity and the in vitro drug release of REMERON tablets, according to USP guidelines. Hany W. Darwish, Ahmed H. Bakheit, and Raed M. Alharbi Copyright © 2016 Hany W. Darwish et al. All rights reserved. Ultrasonic-Assisted Synthesis of Two t-Butoxycarbonylamino Cephalosporin Intermediates on SiO2 Tue, 23 Aug 2016 13:45:48 +0000 Herein, we describe a facile and high efficient strategy for the synthesis of two forms of the 7β-t-butoxycarbonylamino-3-chloromethyl-3-cephem-4-carboxylates using ultrasonic irradiation. By SiO2 as weak Lewis acid catalyst, 4-methoxybenzyl 7β-t-butoxycarbonylamino-3-chloromethyl-3-cephem-carboxylate (Boc-ACLE) and benzhydryl 7β-t-butoxycarbonylamino-3-chloromethyl-3-cephem-4-carboxylate (Boc-ACLH) were successfully synthesized through the efficient protection of the N-t-butoxycarbonyl (N-Boc), and the reactions occurred at low temperature requiring short reaction times and exhibiting excellent isolated yields (96% and 96.2%, resp.). The advantages of this reaction route including the usage of economical reagents and mild reaction conditions and high isolated yield make the two significant t-butoxycarbonylamino cephalosporin intermediates possible in large-scale production. Feng Xue, Yibin Wei, Shengui Ju, and Weihong Xing Copyright © 2016 Feng Xue et al. All rights reserved. Relationship between Sowing Time, Variety, and Quality in Safflower Sun, 21 Aug 2016 12:03:36 +0000 This research was carried out to determine the rates of protein and oil production and fatty acid composition and their correlation coefficients in four safflower cultivars (Remzibey, Dincer, Balci, and Yenice) sown in the autumn and spring from 2013 to 2015. The experiment was carried out using split plots in a randomized block design and was replicated 3 times. The study found protein production rates between 15.20 and 18.08%, oil production rates between 24.58 and 31.99%, palmitic acid production rates between 5.93 and 7.01%, stearic acid production rates between 2.13 and 2.53%, oleic acid production rates between 12.08 and 31.58%, linoleic acid production rates between 78.61 and 59.08%, and linolenic acid production rates between 0.11 and 0.15%. Higher seed oil content values were obtained from spring sowing compared to autumn sowing (27.42% and 26.10%), and, in terms of both the evaluated sowing times and cultivars, the highest oil production rates were found in the Balci cultivar (32.20% and 31.78%) for both sowing times. It was determined that there is a positive and significant () relationship between oil with protein production rates but a negative and significant relationship between oil and linolenic acid production rates (). The oleic acid production rate was strongly negatively and significantly correlated with the linoleic acid production rate (). Mehmet Oz Copyright © 2016 Mehmet Oz. All rights reserved. Substituent Effects on Regioselectivity of the Diels-Alder Reactions: Reactions of 10-Allyl-1,8-dichloroanthracene with 2-Chloroacrylonitrile, 1-Cyanovinyl Acetate and Phenyl Vinyl Sulfone Sun, 21 Aug 2016 11:30:55 +0000 Diels-Alder reaction of 10-allyl-1,8-dichloroanthracene (3) with 2-chloroacrylonitrile (4) and 1-cyanovinyl acetate (5) gives exclusively the ortho isomer while its reaction with phenyl vinyl sulfone (10) yields a mixture of two isomeric adducts with priority to ortho isomer. The reactions proceeded under microwave condition in xylene. Configurations of these isomers have been assigned with the help of NMR spectra. The results indicated that the steric effect is dominating toward the isomer regioselectivity in the Diels-Alder reaction of the present compounds. Mujeeb A. Sultan and Usama Karama Copyright © 2016 Mujeeb A. Sultan and Usama Karama. All rights reserved. Uncatalysed Production of Coumarin-3-carboxylic Acids: A Green Approach Thu, 18 Aug 2016 16:36:11 +0000 A green contribution in short reaction times with moderate yields to produce coumarin-3-carboxylic acids is offered. Five different modes to activate the reactions (microwave, near-infrared, mechanical milling, and ultrasound) were compared with mantle heating in the presence or absence of ethanol, a green solvent. Near-infrared and microwave irradiations deliver the best yields in contrast to ultrasound and mechanical milling; moreover, these four processes offered shorter reaction times in comparison with the conventional mantle heating method. It is also important to highlight that the obtained molecules were produced without the requirement of a catalyst and two nonconventional energies forms are presented as new processes. Joel Martínez, Lilibeth Sánchez, F. Javier Pérez, Vladimir Carranza, Francisco Delgado, Leonor Reyes, and René Miranda Copyright © 2016 Joel Martínez et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis, Characterization, Thermochromism, and Photochromism of Aromatic Aldehyde Hydrazone Derivatives Thu, 18 Aug 2016 15:32:07 +0000 The Schiff bases N-(5-phenylthiazole-2-yl)-2-hydroxylnaphthaldehydehydrazone (1), N-(4′-chloro-5-phenylthiazole-2-yl)-2-hydroxylnaphthaldehydehydrazone (2), and N-(4′-nitro-5-phenylthiazole-2-yl)-2-hydroxylnaphthaldehydehydrazone (3) were synthesized. These compounds were characterized by using IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and MS. The photochromism of the compounds was investigated by IR and UV-visible spectrometry which is time variable under irradiation of 254 nm UV light. The thermochromism of the compounds was studied using temperature-variable IR, UV-visible spectrometry, TG, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results suggested that compound 2 showed thermochromism properties and compounds 2 and 3 displayed photochromism properties. The relationship between the substituents species and photochromic or thermochromic properties of these compounds was revealed as well. ShaoPing Zhu, Yuan Chen, Jun Sun, YuTing Yang, and ChuanJun Yue Copyright © 2016 ShaoPing Zhu et al. All rights reserved. Influence of Controlled Drainage on the Groundwater Nitrogen and Phosphorus Concentration at Jointing-Booting Stage of Wheat Thu, 18 Aug 2016 09:35:31 +0000 The effect of controlled drainage on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) emission at jointing-booting stage of winter wheat was studied in 2007-2008. The conventional subsurface drainage was taken as the control (T5). The groundwater depth was naturally drained to 400 mm and 800 mm below the soil surface within 3 days at the jointing-booting stage, after the water level was kept at 100 mm for 1 day (T1, T2) and 3 days (T3, T4) from the soil surface. Results showed that controlled drainage could significantly reduce the concentration of P and N in groundwater. Compared to T5, the four controlled treatments could significantly decrease the concentration of TP, -N, and -N. The highest concentration reduction for TP and -N was observed under T4 and T1, which reached 64.9% and 73.2%, respectively. As for the concentration of -N, the highest reduction was obtained under T2. The change of TP concentration was significantly affected by the interaction of submergence time and drain depth, while the influence of controlled drainage on -N concentration was not significant. The submergence time, drain depth, and the interaction of submergence time and drain depth had significant effect on the change of concentration of -N. Jin-tao Cui, Guang-cheng Shao, Shuang-en Yu, and Xi Cheng Copyright © 2016 Jin-tao Cui et al. All rights reserved. Thermodynamic Feasibility of Hydrogen-Rich Gas Production Supported by Iron Based Chemical Looping Process Thu, 18 Aug 2016 06:28:49 +0000 The continuously increasing oil prices as well as stronger environmental regulations regarding greenhouse emissions made the greatest economic powers search a new, price competitive, and environment friendly energy carrier, such as hydrogen. The world research activities in these terms focus on the development of integrated hydrogen and power generating technologies, particularly technologies of hydrogen production from various carbonaceous resources, like methane, coal, biomass, or waste, often combined with carbon dioxide capture. In the paper the thermodynamic analysis of the enhancement of hydrogen production in iron based chemical looping process is presented. In this method, iron oxide is first reduced to iron with a reducing agent, such as carbon oxide, hydrogen, or mixture of both gases (synthesis gas), and then, in the inverse reaction with steam, it is regenerated to iron oxide, and pure stream of hydrogen is produced. Grzegorz Słowiński and Adam Smoliński Copyright © 2016 Grzegorz Słowiński and Adam Smoliński. All rights reserved. Comparison of Two Soy Globulins on the Dynamic-Mechanical Properties of the Dough and the Quality of Steamed Bread Tue, 16 Aug 2016 13:15:28 +0000 To investigate the effect of the soy protein concentrate (CSP) and 7S and 11S soy globulin on wheat dough and steamed bread (SB), mixing properties of the dough were assessed by farinograph and dynamic-mechanical analyzer (DMA). The quality attributes of SB were assessed by texture profile analyzer (TPA), sensory analysis, and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that CSP, 7S, or 11S (each from 2.0 to 4.0%) significantly decreased gluten content (from 29.4 to 26.0, 36.7 to 31.8, and 31.6 to 30.7%), when those were added to wheat flour. The CSP/wheat dough stability was increased (from 6.5 to 8.4, 6.5 to 8.5, and 6.5 to 8.3 min) and the degree of softening was decreased (from 71.0 to 68.0, 71.0 to 64.0, and 71.0 to 62.0 min), but 7S or 11S had the opposite result. Moreover, the ratio of 7S and 11S has a significant effect on the quality of the dough. The storage modulus and loss modulus of soy/wheat dough decreased in the order of CSP, control, 11S soy globulin, and 7S soy globulin. The hardness, chewiness, and cohesiveness of SB decreased in the order of control, CSP, 11S soy globulin, and 7S soy globulin. Microstructure demonstrated that gluten network was interfered by SPC, 7S, and 11S soy protein, which was in agreement with the texture analysis index. The quality of SB with 3% 11S was the best in texture, microstructure, and sensory. These findings indicate that 11S has the potential to be used as a special soy protein for SB making. Xue-Li Gao, Fu-Sheng Chen, Li-Fen Zhang, Guan-Hao Bu, and Ming-Tao Fan Copyright © 2016 Xue-Li Gao et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel Piperazine Containing Hydrazone Derivatives Wed, 10 Aug 2016 10:44:33 +0000 Some hydrazone derivatives were synthesized and their potential anticholinesterase activities were examined. A series of eleven new compounds of N′-(2,4-disubstitutedbenzylidene)-2-(4-(4-nitrophenyl)piperazin-1-yl)acetohydrazide derivatives were obtained via reaction of 2-[4-(4-nitrophenyl)piperazin-1-yl]acetohydrazide with aromatic aldehydes. The chemical structures of the compounds were enlightened by FT-IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and HRMS (ESI) spectral data. The inhibition potency of the compounds 3a–k against AChE and BuChE was measured and evaluated using a modification of Ellman’s spectrophotometric method. Among the tested compounds, compound 3c was assigned to be the most active derivative. Galantamine was used as a standard drug. Betül Kaya, Yusuf Özkay, Halide Edip Temel, and Zafer Asım Kaplancıklı Copyright © 2016 Betül Kaya et al. All rights reserved. Experimental Investigation of Coal Dust Wettability Based on Surface Contact Angle Wed, 10 Aug 2016 10:13:14 +0000 Wettability is one of the key chemical properties of coal dust, which is very important to dedusting. In this paper, the theory of liquid wetting solid was presented firstly; then, taking the gas coal of Xinglongzhuang coal mine in China as an example, by determination of critical surface tension of coal piece, it can be concluded that only when the surface tension of surfactant solution is less than 45 mN/m can the coal sample be fully wetted. Due to the effect of particle dispersity, compared with the contact angle of milled coal particle, not all the contact angles of screened coal powder with different sizes have a tendency to increase. Furthermore, by the experiments of coal samples’ specific surface areas and porosities, it can be achieved that the volume of single-point total pore decreases with the gradual decreasing of coal’s porosity, while the ultramicropores’ dispersities and multipoint BET specific surface areas increase. Besides, by a series of contact angle experiments with different surfactants, it can be found that with the increasing of porosity and the decreasing of volume percentage of ultramicropore, the contact angle tends to reduce gradually and the coal dust is much easier to get wetted. Gang Zhou, Han Qiu, Qi Zhang, Mao Xu, Jiayuan Wang, and Gang Wang Copyright © 2016 Gang Zhou et al. All rights reserved. Fucofuroeckol-A from Eisenia bicyclis Inhibits Inflammation in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Mouse Macrophages via Downregulation of the MAPK/NF-κB Signaling Pathway Wed, 10 Aug 2016 07:29:47 +0000 Fucofuroeckol-A (FF) isolated from an edible perennial brown seaweed Eisenia bicyclis was shown to be potent anti-inflammatory agents. FF suppressed the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 dose dependently in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and cytometric bead array assay demonstrated that FF significantly reduced the production of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α, and that of the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. Moreover, FF reduced the activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). These results strongly suggest that the inhibitory effects of fucofuroeckol-A from E. bicyclis on LPS-induced NO and PGE2 production might be due to the suppression of the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathway. Sang-Hoon Lee, Sung-Hwan Eom, Na-Young Yoon, Moon-Moo Kim, Yong-Xin Li, Sang Keun Ha, and Se-Kwon Kim Copyright © 2016 Sang-Hoon Lee et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Cu(II) on the Adsorption Behaviors of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) onto Kaolin Sun, 07 Aug 2016 06:52:44 +0000 The adsorption of Cr(III) or Cr(VI) in the absence and presence of Cu(II) onto kaolin was investigated under pH 2.0–7.0. Results indicated that the adsorption rate was not necessarily proportional to the adsorption capacity. The solutions’ pH values played a key role in kaolin zeta potential , especially the hydrolysis behavior and saturation index of heavy metal ions. In the presence of Cu(II), reached the maximum adsorption capacity of 0.73 mg·g−1 at pH 6.0, while the maximum adsorption capacity for the mixed Cr(VI) and Cu(II) system () was observed at pH 2.0 (0.38 mg·g−1). Comparing the adsorption behaviors and mechanisms, we found that kaolin prefers to adsorb hydrolyzed products of Cr(III) instead of Cr3+ ion, while adsorption sites of kaolin surface were occupied primarily by Cu(II) through surface complexation, leading to Cu(II) inhibited Cr(VI) adsorption. Moreover, Cr(III) and Cr(VI) removal efficiency had a positive correlation with distribution coefficient . Cr(III) and Cr(VI) removal efficiency had a positive correlation with distribution coefficient and that of adsorption affinities of Cr(III) or Cr(VI) on kaolin was found to be Cr(III) < Cr(III)-Cu(II) and Cr(VI) > Cr(VI)-Cu(II). Juanjuan Liu, Xiaolong Wu, Yandi Hu, Chong Dai, Qin Peng, and Dongli Liang Copyright © 2016 Juanjuan Liu et al. All rights reserved. Transformations, Treatment, and Prevention of Water Pollutants Thu, 04 Aug 2016 08:54:57 +0000 José L. Campos, Anuska Mosquera-Corral, Ángeles Val del Río, and Marisol Belmonte Copyright © 2016 José L. Campos et al. All rights reserved.