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Journal of Computer Networks and Communications
Volume 2019, Article ID 3217369, 16 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/3217369
Research Article

Energy-Efficient Coalition Games with Incentives in Machine-to-Machine Communications

Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria, South Africa

Correspondence should be addressed to Raymond W. Juma; moc.liamg@asekewjr

Received 14 February 2019; Revised 13 May 2019; Accepted 23 May 2019; Published 16 June 2019

Guest Editor: Huan Zhou

Copyright © 2019 Raymond W. Juma et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The need to achieve energy efficiency in machine-to-machine (M2M) communications has been a driver of the use of coalition game-based cooperative communication schemes. The proposed schemes have shown good energy-efficient performance results in the recent past. However, sustaining cooperation amongst coalition games of M2M devices from different network-operating authorities requires appropriate incentives. A review of the literature demonstrates that a limited number of contributions have considered the use of coalition games with incentives in M2M communications. In this paper, an energy-efficient coalition game with incentives in M2M communications is proposed. This work considers a Sierpinski triangle technique to partition M2M devices into multiple networks of hierarchical zones. Based on the constructed zones, a contract-modelled incentive is invoked to stimulate multihop transmissions between devices up to the BS/sink. The results obtained demonstrate that the proposed approach is on average 10% more energy efficient than the closely related existing algorithm, the coalition game theoretical clustering (CGTC).