Journal of Computer Networks and Communications http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “Hole Detection for Quantifying Connectivity in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey” Wed, 14 Sep 2016 09:08:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcnc/2016/1260978/ Pearl Antil and Amita Malik Copyright © 2016 Pearl Antil and Amita Malik. All rights reserved. Exact SER Analysis of DFrFT-Based QPSK OFDM System over Frequency Selective Rayleigh Fading Channel with CFO Tue, 06 Sep 2016 09:11:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcnc/2016/2804507/ We present the exact symbol error rate (SER) expression for quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) modulation in frequency selective Rayleigh fading channel for discrete fractional Fourier transform- (DFrFT-) based orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) system in the presence of carrier frequency offset (CFO). The theoretical result is confirmed by means of Monte Carlo simulations. It is shown that the performance of the proposed system, at different values of the DFrFT angle parameter “,” is better than that of OFDM based on discrete Fourier transform. Atul Kumar, Maurizio Magarini, Hem Dutt Joshi, and Rajiv Saxena Copyright © 2016 Atul Kumar et al. All rights reserved. Developing an On-Demand Cloud-Based Sensing-as-a-Service System for Internet of Things Tue, 30 Aug 2016 09:30:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcnc/2016/3292783/ The increasing number of Internet of Things (IoT) devices with various sensors has resulted in a focus on Cloud-based sensing-as-a-service (CSaaS) as a new value-added service, for example, providing temperature-sensing data via a cloud computing system. However, the industry encounters various challenges in the dynamic provisioning of on-demand CSaaS on diverse sensor networks. We require a system that will provide users with standardized access to various sensor networks and a level of abstraction that hides the underlying complexity. In this study, we aim to develop a cloud-based solution to address the challenges mentioned earlier. Our solution, SenseCloud, includes a sensor virtualization mechanism that interfaces with diverse sensor networks, a multitenancy mechanism that grants multiple users access to virtualized sensor networks while sharing the same underlying infrastructure, and a dynamic provisioning mechanism to allow the users to leverage the vast pool of resources on demand and on a pay-per-use basis. We implement a prototype of SenseCloud by using real sensors and verify the feasibility of our system and its performance. SenseCloud bridges the gap between sensor providers and sensor data consumers who wish to utilize sensor data. Mihui Kim, Mihir Asthana, Siddhartha Bhargava, Kartik Krishnan Iyyer, Rohan Tangadpalliwar, and Jerry Gao Copyright © 2016 Mihui Kim et al. All rights reserved. A Data Mining Classification Approach for Behavioral Malware Detection Tue, 26 Jul 2016 12:22:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcnc/2016/8069672/ Data mining techniques have numerous applications in malware detection. Classification method is one of the most popular data mining techniques. In this paper we present a data mining classification approach to detect malware behavior. We proposed different classification methods in order to detect malware based on the feature and behavior of each malware. A dynamic analysis method has been presented for identifying the malware features. A suggested program has been presented for converting a malware behavior executive history XML file to a suitable WEKA tool input. To illustrate the performance efficiency as well as training data and test, we apply the proposed approaches to a real case study data set using WEKA tool. The evaluation results demonstrated the availability of the proposed data mining approach. Also our proposed data mining approach is more efficient for detecting malware and behavioral classification of malware can be useful to detect malware in a behavioral antivirus. Monire Norouzi, Alireza Souri, and Majid Samad Zamini Copyright © 2016 Monire Norouzi et al. All rights reserved. ZigBee’s Received Signal Strength and Latency Evaluation under Varying Environments Tue, 28 Jun 2016 12:18:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcnc/2016/9409402/ Being self-configured, self-organized, and self-healing low power technology, ZigBee has obtained significant attention in last few years for achieving ubiquitous communication among various devices within a Personal Area Network (PAN). Even after a decade of its emergence, it has been well serving the communication needs of numerous modern applications belonging to multiple industries and is still a spotlight for the researchers working on certain aspects to enhance productivity along with a major cost reduction. Despite its robust communication nature, it heavily depends upon the context and is prone to the external effects that may cause a serious threat to prospective applications. This paper presents the novel experimental analysis conducted on real test beds to evaluate the impact of continuously changing communication environment on various parameters, for example, RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indicator) and latency in the presence of multiple obstacles that may lead to severe degradation in the overall performance. Eventually, we suggest a suitable frame size for ZigBee based on our results deduced from the experimental study. H. H. R. Sherazi, Razi Iqbal, Sana Ul Hassan, M. H. Chaudary, and Syed Asfandyar Gilani Copyright © 2016 H. H. R. Sherazi et al. All rights reserved. Design and Implementation of a Chaotic Scheme in Additive White Gaussian Noise Channel Thu, 23 Jun 2016 08:52:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcnc/2016/5976282/ A new chaotic scheme named Flipped Chaotic On-Off Keying (FCOOK) is proposed for binary transmission. In FCOOK, the low correlation value between the stationary signal and its mirrored version is utilized. Transmitted signal for binary 1 is a chaotic segment added to its time flipped (mirrored) version within one bit duration, while in binary 0, no transmission takes place within the same bit duration. The proposed scheme is compared with the standard chaotic systems: Differential Chaos Shift Keying (DCSK) and Correlation Delay Shift Keying (CDSK). The Bit Error Rate (BER) of FCOOK is studied analytically based on Gaussian approximation method. Results show that the BER performance of FCOOK outperforms DCSK and CDSK in AWGN channel environment and with various levels. Additionally, FCOOK offers a double bit rate compared with the standard DCSK. Nizar Al Bassam and Oday Jerew Copyright © 2016 Nizar Al Bassam and Oday Jerew. All rights reserved. Joint Channel Assignment and Routing in Multiradio Multichannel Wireless Mesh Networks: Design Considerations and Approaches Mon, 20 Jun 2016 14:27:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcnc/2016/2769685/ Multiradio wireless mesh network is a promising architecture that improves the network capacity by exploiting multiple radio channels concurrently. Channel assignment and routing are underlying challenges in multiradio architectures since both determine the traffic distribution over links and channels. The interdependency between channel assignments and routing promotes toward the joint solutions for efficient configurations. This paper presents an in-depth review of the joint approaches of channel assignment and routing in multiradio wireless mesh networks. First, the key design issues, modeling, and approaches are identified and discussed. Second, existing algorithms for joint channel assignment and routing are presented and classified based on the channel assignment types. Furthermore, the set of reconfiguration algorithms to adapt the network traffic dynamics is also discussed. Finally, the paper presents some multiradio practical implementations and test-beds and points out the future research directions. Omar M. Zakaria, Aisha-Hassan A. Hashim, Wan H. Hassan, Othman O. Khalifa, M. Azram, Lalitha B. Jivanadham, Mistura L. Sanni, and Mahdi Zareei Copyright © 2016 Omar M. Zakaria et al. All rights reserved. Reliable and Energy Efficient Protocol for MANET Multicasting Wed, 08 Jun 2016 08:01:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcnc/2016/9146168/ A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) consists of a self-configured set of portable mobile nodes without any central infrastructure to regulate traffic in the network. These networks present problems such as lack of congestion control, reliability, and energy consumption. In this paper, we present a new model for MANET multicasting called Reliable and Energy Efficient Protocol Depending on Distance and Remaining Energy (REEDDRE). Our proposal is based on a tone system to provide more efficiency and better performance, and it combines solutions over the Medium Access Control (MAC) layer. The protocol consists of a new construction method for mobile nodes using a clustering approach that depends on distance and remaining energy to provide more stability and to reduce energy consumption. In addition, we propose an adjustment to the typical multicast flow by adding unicast links between clusters. We further present in our model a technique to provide more reliability based on a busy tone system (RMBTM) to reduce excessive control overhead caused by control packets in error recovery. We simulate our proposal using OPNET, and the results show enhancement in terms of reliability, packet delivery ratio (PDR), energy consumption, and throughput. Bander H. AlQarni and Ahmad S. AlMogren Copyright © 2016 Bander H. AlQarni and Ahmad S. AlMogren. All rights reserved. On Internet Traffic Classification: A Two-Phased Machine Learning Approach Mon, 06 Jun 2016 06:31:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcnc/2016/2048302/ Traffic classification utilizing flow measurement enables operators to perform essential network management. Flow accounting methods such as NetFlow are, however, considered inadequate for classification requiring additional packet-level information, host behaviour analysis, and specialized hardware limiting their practical adoption. This paper aims to overcome these challenges by proposing two-phased machine learning classification mechanism with NetFlow as input. The individual flow classes are derived per application through -means and are further used to train a C5.0 decision tree classifier. As part of validation, the initial unsupervised phase used flow records of fifteen popular Internet applications that were collected and independently subjected to -means clustering to determine unique flow classes generated per application. The derived flow classes were afterwards used to train and test a supervised C5.0 based decision tree. The resulting classifier reported an average accuracy of 92.37% on approximately 3.4 million test cases increasing to 96.67% with adaptive boosting. The classifier specificity factor which accounted for differentiating content specific from supplementary flows ranged between 98.37% and 99.57%. Furthermore, the computational performance and accuracy of the proposed methodology in comparison with similar machine learning techniques lead us to recommend its extension to other applications in achieving highly granular real-time traffic classification. Taimur Bakhshi and Bogdan Ghita Copyright © 2016 Taimur Bakhshi and Bogdan Ghita. All rights reserved. SEMAN: A Novel Secure Middleware for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Mon, 23 May 2016 12:26:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcnc/2016/3136853/ As a consequence of the particularities of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs), such as dynamic topology and self-organization, the implementation of complex and flexible applications is a challenge. To enable the deployment of these applications, several middleware solutions were proposed. However, these solutions do not completely consider the security requirements of these networks. Based on the limitations of the existing solutions, this paper presents a new secure middleware, called Secure Middleware for Ad Hoc Networks (SEMAN), which provides a set of basic and secure services to MANETs aiming to facilitate the development of distributed, complex, and flexible applications. SEMAN considers the context of applications and organizes nodes into groups, also based on these contexts. The middleware includes three modules: service, processing, and security. Security module is the main part of the middleware. It has the following components: key management, trust management, and group management. All these components were developed and are described in this paper. They are supported by a cryptographic core and behave according to security rules and policies. The integration of these components provides security guarantees against attacks to the applications that usethe middleware services. Eduardo da Silva and Luiz Carlos Pessoa Albini Copyright © 2016 Eduardo da Silva and Luiz Carlos Pessoa Albini. All rights reserved. A Hybrid Energy Efficient Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Tue, 17 May 2016 13:42:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcnc/2016/2861904/ We proposed an energy conservation technique called Location Based Topology Control with Sleep Scheduling for ad hoc networks. It uses the feature of both topology control approach and power management approach. Like the topology control approach, it attempts to reduce the transmission power of a node, which is determined from its neighborhood location information. A node goes to sleep state based on the traffic condition as that of power management approach. In the proposed scheme, a node goes to sleep state only when its absence does not create local partition in its neighborhood. We preformed extensive simulation to compare the proposed scheme with existing ones. Simulation results show that the energy consumption is lower with increase in the network lifetime and higher throughput in the proposed scheme. Niranjan Kumar Ray and Ashok Kumar Turuk Copyright © 2016 Niranjan Kumar Ray and Ashok Kumar Turuk. All rights reserved. Performance Analysis of Cooperative Spectrum Sensing under Guaranteed Throughput Constraints for Cognitive Radio Networks Mon, 09 May 2016 13:06:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcnc/2016/9706781/ One of the main challenges in cognitive radio networks is the ability of secondary users to detect the primary user presence with high probability of detection. In previous research, optimizing cooperative sensing in cognitive radio networks is performed for either a targeted probability of detection or a false alarm. After setting one of the probabilities as an optimization constraint, the other is optimized. In this paper, a guaranteed constant throughput at the secondary users is introduced as a target while optimizing probability of detection for cooperative sensing. Both sensing time values and number of cooperated cognitive radio secondary users are investigated to maximize the probability of detection of primary user. AND and OR hard decision schemes are considered and compared with soft decision scheme which is weighted modified deflection coefficient scheme (W-MDC). It is illustrated that cooperation of all users and utilizing full frames for sensing time will not provide maximum probability of detection. A tradeoff between performances of cognitive radio networks with and without optimization is presented. The effects of varying network sizes, normalized target throughput, maximum frame duration times, and received signal-to-noise ratio at the fusion center are investigated for different fusion rules. H. F. Al-Doseri and M. A. Mangoud Copyright © 2016 H. F. Al-Doseri and M. A. Mangoud. All rights reserved. An Overview on SDN Architectures with Multiple Controllers Wed, 27 Apr 2016 14:04:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcnc/2016/9396525/ Software-defined networking offers several benefits for networking by separating the control plane from the data plane. However, networks’ scalability, reliability, and availability remain as a big issue. Accordingly, multicontroller architectures are important for SDN-enabled networks. This paper gives a comprehensive overview of SDN multicontroller architectures. It presents SDN and its main instantiation OpenFlow. Then, it explains in detail the differences between multiple types of multicontroller architectures, like the distribution method and the communication system. Furthermore, it provides already implemented and under research examples of multicontroller architectures by describing their design, their communication process, and their performance results. Othmane Blial, Mouad Ben Mamoun, and Redouane Benaini Copyright © 2016 Othmane Blial et al. All rights reserved. Bounds on Worst-Case Deadline Failure Probabilities in Controller Area Networks Thu, 21 Apr 2016 08:42:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcnc/2016/5196092/ Industrial communication networks like the Controller Area Network (CAN) are often required to operate reliably in harsh environments which expose the communication network to random errors. Probabilistic schedulability analysis can employ rich stochastic error models to capture random error behaviors, but this is most often at the expense of increased analysis complexity. In this paper, an efficient method (of time complexity ) to bound the message deadline failure probabilities for an industrial CAN network consisting of periodic/sporadic message transmissions is proposed. The paper develops bounds for Deadline Minus Jitter Monotonic (DMJM) and Earliest Deadline First (EDF) message scheduling techniques. Both random errors and random bursts of errors can be included in the model. Stochastic simulations and a case study considering DMJM and EDF scheduling of an automotive benchmark message set provide validation of the technique and highlight its application. Michael Short Copyright © 2016 Michael Short. All rights reserved. Secure Mix-Zones for Privacy Protection of Road Network Location Based Services Users Wed, 20 Apr 2016 13:06:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcnc/2016/3821593/ Privacy has been found to be the major impediment and hence the area to be worked out for the provision of Location Based Services in the wide sense. With the emergence of smart, easily portable, communicating devices, information acquisition is achieving new domains. The work presented here is an extension of the ongoing work towards achieving privacy for the present day emerging communication techniques. This work emphasizes one of the most effective real-time privacy enhancement techniques called Mix-Zones. In this paper, we have presented a model of a secure road network with Mix-Zones getting activated on the basis of spatial as well as temporal factors. The temporal factors are ascertained by the amount of traffic and its flow. The paper also discusses the importance of the number of Mix-Zones a user traverses and their mixing effectiveness. We have also shown here using our simulations which are required for the real-time treatment of the problem that the proposed transient Mix-Zones are part of a viable and robust solution towards the road network privacy protection of the communicating moving objects of the present scenario. Rubina S. Zuberi and Syed N. Ahmad Copyright © 2016 Rubina S. Zuberi and Syed N. Ahmad. All rights reserved. Detecting and Mitigating Smart Insider Jamming Attacks in MANETs Using Reputation-Based Coalition Game Mon, 18 Apr 2016 08:34:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcnc/2016/4289176/ Security in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) is challenging due to the ability of adversaries to gather necessary intelligence to launch insider jamming attacks. The solutions to prevent external attacks on MANET are not applicable for defense against insider jamming attacks. There is a need for a formal framework to characterize the information required by adversaries to launch insider jamming attacks. In this paper, we propose a novel reputation-based coalition game in MANETs to detect and mitigate insider jamming attacks. Since there is no centralized controller in MANETs, the nodes rely heavily on availability of transmission rates and a reputation for each individual node in the coalition to detect the presence of internal jamming node. The nodes will form a stable grand coalition in order to make a strategic security defense decision, maintain the grand coalition based on node reputation, and exclude any malicious node based on reputation value. Simulation results show that our approach provides a framework to quantify information needed by adversaries to launch insider attacks. The proposed approach will improve MANET’s defense against insider attacks, while also reducing incorrect classification of legitimate nodes as jammers. Ashraf Al Sharah, Taiwo Oyedare, and Sachin Shetty Copyright © 2016 Ashraf Al Sharah et al. All rights reserved. Secure Multicast Routing Algorithm for Wireless Mesh Networks Wed, 06 Apr 2016 14:17:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcnc/2016/1563464/ Multicast is an indispensable communication technique in wireless mesh network (WMN). Many applications in WMN including multicast TV, audio and video conferencing, and multiplayer social gaming use multicast transmission. On the other hand, security in multicast transmissions is crucial, without which the network services are significantly disrupted. Existing secure routing protocols that address different active attacks are still vulnerable due to subtle nature of flaws in protocol design. Moreover, existing secure routing protocols assume that adversarial nodes cannot share an out-of-band communication channel which rules out the possibility of wormhole attack. In this paper, we propose SEMRAW (SEcure Multicast Routing Algorithm for Wireless mesh network) that is resistant against all known active threats including wormhole attack. SEMRAW employs digital signatures to prevent a malicious node from gaining illegitimate access to the message contents. Security of SEMRAW is evaluated using the simulation paradigm approach. Rakesh Matam and Somanath Tripathy Copyright © 2016 Rakesh Matam and Somanath Tripathy. All rights reserved. Review of Adaptive Cell Selection Techniques in LTE-Advanced Heterogeneous Networks Thu, 31 Mar 2016 11:58:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcnc/2016/7394136/ Poor cell selection is the main challenge in Picocell (PeNB) deployment in Long Term Evolution- (LTE-) Advanced heterogeneous networks (HetNets) because it results in load imbalance and intercell interference. A selection technique based on cell range extension (CRE) has been proposed for LTE-Advanced HetNets to extend the coverage of PeNBs for load balancing. However, poor CRE bias setting in cell selection inhibits the attainment of desired cell splitting gains. By contrast, a cell selection technique based on adaptive bias is a more effective solution to traffic load balancing in terms of increasing data rate compared with static bias-based approaches. This paper reviews the use of adaptive cell selection in LTE-Advanced HetNets by highlighting the importance of cell load estimation. The general performances of different techniques for adaptive CRE-based cell selection are compared. Results reveal that the adaptive CRE bias of the resource block utilization ratio (RBUR) technique exhibits the highest cell-edge throughput. Moreover, more accurate cell load estimation is obtained in the extended RBUR adaptive CRE bias technique through constant bit rate (CBR) traffic, which further improved load balancing as against the estimation based on the number of user equipment (UE). Finally, this paper presents suggestions for future research directions. M. A. Gadam, Maryam Abdulazeez Ahmed, Chee Kyun Ng, Nor Kamariah Nordin, Aduwati Sali, and Fazirulhisyam Hashim Copyright © 2016 M. A. Gadam et al. All rights reserved. ASEP of MIMO System with MMSE-OSIC Detection over Weibull-Gamma Fading Channel Subject to AWGGN Sun, 13 Mar 2016 11:27:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcnc/2016/7918456/ Ordered successive interference cancellation (OSIC) is adopted with minimum mean square error (MMSE) detection to enhance the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system performance. The optimum detection technique improves the error rate performance but increases system complexity. Therefore, MMSE-OSIC detection is used which reduces error rate compared to traditional MMSE with low complexity. The system performance is analyzed in composite fading environment that includes multipath and shadowing effects known as Weibull-Gamma (WG) fading. Along with the composite fading, a generalized noise that is additive white generalized Gaussian noise (AWGGN) is considered to show the impact of wireless scenario. This noise model includes various forms of noise as special cases such as impulsive, Gamma, Laplacian, Gaussian, and uniform. Consequently, generalized -function is used to model noise. The average symbol error probability (ASEP) of MIMO system is computed for 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (16-QAM) using MMSE-OSIC detection in WG fading perturbed by AWGGN. Analytical expressions are given in terms of Fox-H function (FHF). These expressions demonstrate the best fit to simulation results. Keerti Tiwari, Davinder S. Saini, and Sunil V. Bhooshan Copyright © 2016 Keerti Tiwari et al. All rights reserved. IDHOCNET: A Novel ID Centric Architecture for Ad Hoc Networks Thu, 03 Mar 2016 15:17:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcnc/2016/6438584/ Ad hoc networks lack support of infrastructure and operate in a shared bandwidth wireless environment. Presently, such networks have been realized by various adaptations in Internet Protocol (IP) architecture which was developed for infrastructure oriented hierarchical networks. The IP architecture has its known problem and issues even in infrastructure settings, like IP address overloading, mobility, multihoming, and so forth. Therefore, when such architecture is implemented in ad hoc scenario the problems get multiplied. Due to this fact, ad hoc networks suffer from additional problems like IP address autoconfiguration, service provisioning, efficient bandwidth utilization, and node identification. In this paper we present IDHOCNET which is a novel implementation of service provisioning and application development framework in the ad hoc context. We illustrate a number of implemented features of the architecture which include IP address autoconfiguration, identification of nodes by using real world identifiers, IP based services support in ad hoc networks, and a new class of application known as ID based application. Moreover how identifiers can completely replace the IP addresses to run the IP based applications is shown. It is expected that this work will open new research horizons and paradigms for ad hoc networks. Shahrukh Khalid, Athar Mahboob, Choudhry Fahad Azim, and Aqeel Ur Rehman Copyright © 2016 Shahrukh Khalid et al. All rights reserved. Vertical Handover Decision Algorithm Using Ants’ Colonies for 4G Heterogeneous Wireless Networks Sun, 28 Feb 2016 09:25:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcnc/2016/6259802/ With the development of 4G mobile telecommunication systems, providing users with the convenience of a seamless continuous connection is not enough anymore. Users want to be connected through the best available network with the best quality of service. It is necessary to have a good decision-making algorithm which decides whether it is necessary to perform handoff to another network, the best network to vertically perform handoff to, and the right time to initiate the handover. This paper proposes a new approach in which mobile terminals (MTs) continuously analyze the network and keep a database of the best available networks. The concept is based on QoS aware ant colony built on the vertical handoff mechanism that uses an updated version of ants’ colony optimization decision algorithm (), the dynamic and static factors such as RSS, the cost of service, bandwidth, the velocity of MT, the power consumption and security, and the module for predicting the traveling distance within an IEEE 802.11 WLAN cell. Simulation results show that we can not only meet the individual needs of users in terms of QoS, but also improve the whole system performance by reducing the number of handover failures and unnecessary handover instances by up to 95%. Imad El Fachtali, Rachid Saadane, and Mohammed ElKoutbi Copyright © 2016 Imad El Fachtali et al. All rights reserved. The Impact of Noise Models on Capacity Performance of Distribution Broadband over Power Lines Networks Thu, 25 Feb 2016 16:47:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcnc/2016/5680850/ This paper considers broadband potential of distribution Broadband over Power Lines (BPL) networks when different well-known noise models of the BPL literature are applied. The contribution of this paper is twofold. First, the seven most representative and used noise models of the BPL literature are synopsized in this paper. With reference to this set, the broadband performance of a great number of distribution BPL topologies either Overhead (OV) or Underground (UN), either Medium-Voltage (MV) or Low-Voltage (LV), is investigated in terms of suitable capacity metrics. Second, based on the proposed capacity metrics, a comparative capacity analysis is performed among various well-validated noise models. Through the careful study of its results, it is demonstrated that during capacity computations of distribution BPL networks, the flat Additive White Gaussian Noise (FL noise model) can be comfortably assumed as an efficient noise model either in 3–30 MHz or in 3–88 MHz frequency range since its capacity differences with the other well-proven noise models are negligible. Athanasios G. Lazaropoulos Copyright © 2016 Athanasios G. Lazaropoulos. All rights reserved. Markov Model-Based Energy Efficiency Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks Mon, 15 Feb 2016 09:13:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcnc/2016/7695278/ Cognitive Radio Sensor Network (CRSN), incorporating cognitive radio capability in wireless sensor networks, is a new paradigm of the next-generation sensor network. Sensor nodes are usually battery powered and hence have strict energy constraints. As a result, energy efficiency is also a very critical problem in the CRSN. In this paper, we focus on energy consumption because of spectrum sensing. Furthermore, we present an adaptive spectrum sensing time interval strategy, in which SUs can adjust the next spectrum sensing time interval according to the current spectrum sensing results (namely, channel status). In order to find an optimal spectrum sensing time interval, we introduce the Markov model. Then, we establish a Markov model-based mathematical modeling for analyzing the relationship between spectrum sensing time interval and prior spectrum sensing results. Finally, numerical results demonstrate that the proposed strategy with dynamic adaptive spectrum sensing time interval exceeded listen before talk (LBT) strategy which is widely used for traditional wireless sensor networks. Yan Jiao and Inwhee Joe Copyright © 2016 Yan Jiao and Inwhee Joe. All rights reserved. The Improved Overhearing Backup AODV Protocol in MANET Sun, 24 Jan 2016 09:04:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcnc/2016/6463157/ Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is one of the most widely used networks, which has attracted attentions, having features such as limited energy resources, limited bandwidth, and security weaknesses due to lack of a central infrastructure. Safe and suitable routing is one of the research aspects of MANET. In this paper, a proposed method, called M-AODV, which is a type of overhearing backup protocol, based on AODV, is presented. The simulation results of this protocol, applied by NS2 simulator, showed the improvement of packet delivery rate and reduction of overhead and delay. Moreover, to assess the security of the proposed protocol, we simulated M-AODV and AODV protocols under black hole and wormhole attacks, using no security solution. The results showed that M-AODV had been improved in terms of packet delivery ratio, and the delay had been reduced as well, but the amount of overhead had been increased. Elham Zamani and Mohammadreza Soltanaghaei Copyright © 2016 Elham Zamani and Mohammadreza Soltanaghaei. All rights reserved. Game-Theory-Based Approach for Energy Routing in a Smart Grid Network Thu, 14 Jan 2016 07:24:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcnc/2016/4761720/ Small power plants and buildings with renewable power generation capability have recently been added to traditional central power plants. Through these facilities, prosumers appear to have a concurrent role in both energy production and consumption. Based on bidirectional power transfers by large numbers of prosumers, a smart microgrid has become an important factor in efficiently controlling the microgrids used in power markets and in conducting effective power trades among grids. In this paper, we present an approach utilizing the game theory for effective and efficient energy routing, which is a novel and challenging procedure for a smart microgrid network. First, we propose strategies for choosing the desired transaction price for both electricity surpluses and shortages to maximize profits through energy transactions. An optimization scheme is utilized to search for an energy route with minimum cost using the solving method used in a traditional transportation problem by treating the sale and purchase quantities as transportation supply and demand, respectively. To evaluate the effect of the proposed decision strategies, we simulated our mechanism, and the results proved that our mechanism yields results pursued by each strategy. Our proposed strategies will contribute to spreading a smart microgrid for enhancing the utilization of microgrids. June S. Hong and Mihui Kim Copyright © 2016 June S. Hong and Mihui Kim. All rights reserved. Replica Node Detection Using Enhanced Single Hop Detection with Clonal Selection Algorithm in Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks Mon, 04 Jan 2016 13:28:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcnc/2016/1620343/ Security of Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks is a vital challenge as the sensor nodes are deployed in unattended environment and they are prone to various attacks. One among them is the node replication attack. In this, the physically insecure nodes are acquired by the adversary to clone them by having the same identity of the captured node, and the adversary deploys an unpredictable number of replicas throughout the network. Hence replica node detection is an important challenge in Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks. Various replica node detection techniques have been proposed to detect these replica nodes. These methods incur control overheads and the detection accuracy is low when the replica is selected as a witness node. This paper proposes to solve these issues by enhancing the Single Hop Detection (SHD) method using the Clonal Selection algorithm to detect the clones by selecting the appropriate witness nodes. The advantages of the proposed method include (i) increase in the detection ratio, (ii) decrease in the control overhead, and (iii) increase in throughput. The performance of the proposed work is measured using detection ratio, false detection ratio, packet delivery ratio, average delay, control overheads, and throughput. The implementation is done using ns-2 to exhibit the actuality of the proposed work. L. S. Sindhuja and G. Padmavathi Copyright © 2016 L. S. Sindhuja and G. Padmavathi. All rights reserved. Survey of QoS Routing Protocols in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks Thu, 10 Dec 2015 05:57:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcnc/2015/824619/ The emergence of Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSNs) has stimulated the refocusing of research from conventional scalar Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) to WMSNs. Currently, because of their prevalence WMSNs are used in different applications. Due to the unique features of WMSNs, fulfilling Quality of Service (QoS) requirements for a variety of applications is the challenge. QoS routing is a backbone of WMSNs and plays a vital role in satisfying QoS requirements. The performance of QoS routing depends upon the selection of an optimal path or paths. Path selection is based on evaluation of a cost function using various routing metrics. A careful blend of such metrics in a routing cost function guarantees a committed level of QoS. This survey uses number of routing metrics as criteria for categorizing state-of-the-art QoS WMSNs routing techniques. In addition, open issues and future research directions to further develop efficient routing protocols to guarantee QoS are discussed. Shailendra Aswale and Vijay R. Ghorpade Copyright © 2015 Shailendra Aswale and Vijay R. Ghorpade. All rights reserved. Autonomous QoS Management and Policing in Unmanaged Local Area Networks Thu, 26 Nov 2015 07:53:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcnc/2015/790375/ The high increase of bandwidth-intensive applications like high definition video streaming in home and small office environments leads to QoS challenges in hybrid wired/wireless local area networks. These networks are often not QoS aware and may contain bottlenecks in their topology. In addition, they often have a hybrid nature due to the used access technology consisting of, for example, Ethernet, wireless, and PowerLAN links. In this paper, we present the research work on a novel autonomous system for hybrid QoS in local area networks, called QoSiLAN, which does not rely on network infrastructure support but on host cooperation and works independently of the access technology. We present a new QoS Signalling Protocol, policing and admission control algorithms, and a new lightweight statistical bandwidth prediction algorithm for autonomous resource management in LANs. This new QoS framework enables link based, access-medium independent bandwidth management without network support. We provide evaluation results for the novel bandwidth prediction algorithm as well as for the QoSiLAN framework and its protocol, which highlight the features, robustness, and the effectiveness of the proposed system. Christopher Köhnen, Christian Überall, Muttukrishnan Rajarajan, Rudolf Jäger, and Veselin Rakočević Copyright © 2015 Christopher Köhnen et al. All rights reserved. Patient Data Prioritization in the Cross-Layer Designs of Wireless Body Area Network Wed, 04 Nov 2015 11:22:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcnc/2015/516838/ In Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN), various biomedical sensors (BMSs) are deployed to monitor various vital signs of a patient for detecting the abnormality of the vital signs. These BMSs inform the medical staff in advance before the patient’s life goes into a threatening situation. In WBAN, routing layer has the same challenges as generally seen in WSN, but the unique requirements of WBANs need to be addressed by the novel routing mechanisms quite differently from the routing mechanism in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). The slots allocation to emergency and nonemergency patient’s data is one of the challenging issues in IEEE 802.15.4 and IEEE 802.15.6 MAC Superframe structures. In the similar way, IEEE 802.15.4 and IEEE 802.15.6 PHY layers have also unique constraints to modulate the various vital signs of patient data into continuous and discrete forms. Numerous research contributions have been made for addressing these issues of the aforementioned three layers in WBAN. Therefore, this paper presents a cross-layer design structure of WBAN with various issues and challenges. Moreover, it also presents a detail review of the existing cross-layer protocols in the WBAN domain by discussing their strengths and weaknesses. Fasee Ullah, Abdul Hanan Abdullah, Muhammad Qasim Jan, and Kashif Naseer Qureshi Copyright © 2015 Fasee Ullah et al. All rights reserved. Definition of an 802.11 Interface Management Process in a Proposed System for Transmission Capacity Enhancement in Wireless Mesh Networks Sun, 28 Jun 2015 11:13:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcnc/2015/898365/ 802.11-based wireless mesh networks (WMNs) as last mile solutions frequently become bottlenecks in the overall Internet communication structure. The lack of end-to-end capacity on routes also affects vertical traffic coming from or flowing towards external networks, such as the Internet. The presented approach aims to increase the overall network performance by exploiting channel diversity and to additionally favor vertical traffic. To achieve this, first we propose a general system that modifies an existing mesh node architecture, in order to prepare a more efficient resource management and to enhance the restricted transmission capacity in standard WMNs. The parallel use of nonoverlapping channels, based on a multiradio node, marks the starting point. The system treats aspects of channel assignment, traffic analysis, and fast layer 2 forwarding. Then, the impact of a novel Multihop Radio Resource Management process is discussed as a relevant component of this new system architecture. The process combines per-hop priority queuing and load balancing in a novel way. It was designed, developed, and evaluated in the presented paper, resulting in the fact that capacity in WMNs was significantly increased, Quality-of-Service parameters were improved, and more efficient use of multiple radios could be reached. The proposed process was validated using a simulation approach. Christian Köbel, Walter Baluja García, and Joachim Habermann Copyright © 2015 Christian Köbel et al. All rights reserved.