Table of Contents
Journal of Cancer Research
Volume 2014, Article ID 840906, 14 pages
Research Article

miR-204 Shifts the Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition in Concert with the Transcription Factors RUNX2, ETS1, and cMYB in Prostate Cancer Cell Line Model

Institute of Biology and Immunology of Reproduction, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 73 Tsarigradsko Shosse Boulevard, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria

Received 29 June 2014; Revised 18 September 2014; Accepted 24 September 2014; Published 14 October 2014

Academic Editor: Vincent J. Gnanapragasam

Copyright © 2014 Krassimira Todorova et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Epithelial to mesenchymal transition is an essential step in advanced cancer development. Many master transcription factors shift their expression to drive this process, while noncoding RNAs families like miR-200 are found to restrict it. In this study we investigated how the tumor suppressor miR-204 and several transcription factors modulate main markers of mesenchymal transformation like E- and N-cadherin, SLUG, VEGF, and SOX-9 in prostate cancer cell line model (LNCaP, PC3, VCaP, and NCI-H660). We found that SLUG, E-cadherin, and N-cadherin are differentially modulated by miR-204, using miR-204 specific mimics and inhibitors and siRNA gene silencing (RUNX2, ETS-1, and cMYB). The genome perturbation associated TMPRSS2-ERG fusion coincided with shift from tumor-suppressor to tumor-promoting activity of this miRNA. The ability of miR-204 to suppress cancer cell viability and migration was lost in the fusion harboring cell lines. We found differential E-cadherin splicing corroborating to miR-204 modulatory effects. RUNX2, ETS1, and cMYB are involved in the regulation of E-cadherin, N-cadherin, and VEGFA expression. RUNX2 knockdown results in SOX9 downregulation, while ETS1 and cMYB silencing result in SOX9 upregulation in VCaP cells. Their expression was found to be also methylation dependent. Our study provides means for understanding cancer heterogeneity in regard to adapted therapeutic approaches development.