Table of Contents
Journal of Criminology
Volume 2013, Article ID 571760, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/571760
Research Article

Drug Courts and Community Crime Rates: A Nationwide Analysis of Jurisdiction-Level Outcomes

University of Michigan-Dearborn, Department of Behavioral Sciences, 4901 Evergreen Road, Dearborn, MI 48128, USA

Received 29 March 2013; Accepted 31 May 2013

Academic Editor: Todd I. Herrenkohl

Copyright © 2013 David R. Lilley. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. Belenko, Research on Drug Courts: A Critical Review 2001 Update, National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse (CASA), Columbia University, New York, NY, USA, 2001.
  2. S. Turner, D. Longshore, S. Wenzel et al., National Evaluation of 14 Drug Courts. Rand Corporation, National Institute of Justice, Washington, DC, USA, 2001.
  3. D. B. Wilson, O. Mitchell, and D. L. MacKenzie, “A systematic review of drug court effects on recidivism,” Journal of Experimental Criminology, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 459–487, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. D. Lilley and R. Boba, “A comparison of outcomes associated with two key law-enforcement grant programs,” Criminal Justice Policy Review, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 438–465, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. T. D. Miethe, H. Lu, and E. Reese, “Reintegrative shaming and recidivism risks in drug court: explanations for some unexpected findings,” Crime and Delinquency, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 522–541, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. R. Peters, A. Haas, and M. Hunt, “Treatment “dosage” effects in drug court programs,” Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 63–72, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. J. L. Worrall, S. Hiromoto, N. Merritt, D. Du, J. O. Jacobson, and M. Y. Iguchi, “Crime trends and the effect of mandated drug treatment: evidence from California's substance abuse and crime prevention act,” Journal of Criminal Justice, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 109–113, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. Bureau of Justice Assistance, Assessment of the Feasibility of Drug Night Courts, NCJ, 142415, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC, USA, 1993.
  9. Government Accountability Office, Drug Courts: Overview of Growth, Characteristics, and Results, U.S. General Accounting Office, Washington, DC, USA, 1997.
  10. Supreme Court Task Force, Report on Florida's Drug Courts, Office of the State Courts Administrator/Office of Court Improvement, Tallahassee, Fla, USA, 2004.
  11. Government Accountability Office, Adult Drug Courts: Evidence Indicates Recidivism Reductions and Mixed Results for Other Outcomes, U.S. Government Accountability Office, Washington, DC, USA, 2005.
  12. Drug Court Program Office and Office of Justice Programs, Defining Drug Courts: The Key Components, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC, USA, 1997.
  13. A. Armstrong, “Drug courts and the de facto legalization of drug use for participants in residential treatment facilities,” Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, vol. 94, no. 1, pp. 133–168, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. S. L. Burns and M. Peyrot, “Tough love: nurturing and coercing responsibility and recovery in California drug courts,” Social Problems, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 416–438, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. E. Wolf, K. Sowards, and D. Wolf, “Predicting retention of drug court participants using event history analysis,” Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, vol. 37, no. 3-4, pp. 139–162, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. Government Accountability Office, Community Policing Grants: COPS Grants Were a Modest Contributor to Declines in Crime During The 1990s, U.S. Government Accountability Office, Washington, DC, USA, 2005.
  17. J. R. Hepburn and A. N. Harvey, “The effect of the threat of legal sanction on program retention and completion: is that why they stay in drug court?” Crime and Delinquency, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 255–280, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. Crime Control Digest, “Florida: Drug court judges get sanction authority,” 2006. View at Google Scholar
  19. Florida House Bill 175, “Drug court programs. Florida Senate,” 2008, http://www.flsenate.gov/data/session/2006/House/bills/analysis/pdf/h0175c.JUVJ.pdf. View at Google Scholar
  20. C. Huddleston, K. Freeman-Wilson, and D. Boone, Painting the Current Picture: A National Report Card on Drug Courts and other Problem Solving Court Programs in the U.S, National Drug Court Institute, Alexandria, Va, USA, 2004.
  21. S. Belenko, Research on Drug Courts: A Critical Review 1999 Update, National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse (CASA), Columbia University, New York, NY, USA, 1999.
  22. J. Roman, W. Townsend, and A. Bhati, Recidivism Rates for Drug Court Graduates: Nationally Based Estimates, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC, USA, 2003.
  23. J. Bowers, “Contraindicated drug courts,” UCLA Law Review, vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 783–835, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. J. M. Miller and J. E. Shutt, “Considering the need for empirically grounded drug court screening mechanisms,” Journal of Drug Issues, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 91–106, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M. Schiff and C. Terry, “Predicting graduation from Broward County's dedicated drug treatment court,” The Justice System Journal, vol. 19, pp. 291–310, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  26. S. R. Senjo and L. A. Leip, “Testing and developing theory in drug court: a four-part logit model to predict program completion,” Criminal Justice Policy Review, vol. 12, pp. 66–87, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  27. M. D. Anglin and G. Speckart, “Narcotics use and crime: a multisample, multimethod analysis,” Criminology, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 197–233, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. D. Boyum and M. Kleiman, “Breaking the drug-crime link,” in The Public Interest, vol. 152, pp. 19–38, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  29. P. Goldstein, P. Bellucci, B. Spunt, and T. Miller, “Frequency of cocaine use and violence: a comparison between men and women,” NIDA Research Monograph 110, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, USA, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  30. Health and Human Services, “National household survey on drug abuse: drug use and arrests Table 13.3,” 2008, http://www.oas.samhsa.gov/nhsda/1997Main/nhsda1997mfWeb-119.htm#table13.3. View at Google Scholar
  31. Bureau of Justice Statistics, Comparing Federal and State Prison Inmates-1991, NCJ, 145864, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC, USA, 1994.
  32. Office of National Drug Control Policy, “Drug policy information clearinghouse: fact sheet,” 2000, http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/publications/factsht/crime/index.html. View at Google Scholar
  33. Office of Justice Programs, Drug Court Activity Update: Summary Information on All Programs and Detailed Information on Adult Drug Courts, Drug Court Clearinghouse and Technical Assistance Project, Washington, DC, USA, 2001.
  34. D. C. Gottfredson, B. W. Kearley, and S. D. Bushway, “Substance use, drug treatment, and crime: an examination of intra-individual variation in a drug court population,” Journal of Drug Issues, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 601–630, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. C. Lum, The spatial relationship between street-level drug activity and violence [M.S. thesis], University of Maryland, College Park, Md, USA, 2003.
  36. D. Lilley, Assessing jurisdiction-level crime trends during the 1990s: an analysis of the impact of policing changes [M.S. thesis], Michigan State University, East Lansing, Mich, USA, 2006.
  37. M. T. French, K. A. McGeary, D. D. Chitwood, C. B. McCoy, J. A. Inciardi, and D. McBride, “Chronic drug use and crime,” Substance Abuse, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 95–109, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. D. S. Lipton and B. D. Johnson, “Smack, crack, and score: two decades of NIDA-funded drugs and crime research at NDRI 1974–1994,” Substance Use and Misuse, vol. 33, no. 9, pp. 1779–1815, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. O. Mitchell, D. B. Wilson, A. Eggers, and D. L. MacKenzie, “Assessing the effectiveness of drug courts on recidivism: a meta-analytic review of traditional and non-traditional drug courts,” Journal of Criminal Justice, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 60–71, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. D. Gottfredson, S. Najaka, and B. Kearley, “Effectiveness of drug treatment courts: evidence from a randomized trial,” Criminology and Public Policy, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 171–196, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  41. National Institute of Justice, Drug Courts: The Second Decade, National Institute of Justice, Washington, DC, USA, 2006.
  42. P. Downey and J. Roman, A Bayesian Analysis Meta-Analysis of Drug Court Cost Effectiveness, Urban Institute, Washington, DC, USA, 2010.
  43. Office of Management and Budget, “Program assessment: drug courts. Expectmore.gov Website,” 2007, http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/expectmore/summary/10000168.2002.html. View at Google Scholar
  44. P. Allison, Fixed-Effects Regression Methods for Longitudinal Data Using SAS, SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA, 2005.
  45. E. Frees, Longitudinal and Panel Data: Analysis and Applications in the Social Sciences, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2004.
  46. J. Wooldridge, Introductory Econometrics: A Modern Approach, South- Western College, Mason, Ohio, USA, 2000.
  47. M. Leymon, Fixed sentencing: the effects on imprisonment rates over time [M.S. thesis], University of Oregon, Eugene, Ore, USA, 2010.
  48. T. B. Marvell and C. E. Moody, “Specification problems, police levels, and crime rates,” Criminology, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 609–646, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. D. Lilley and R. Boba, “Crime reduction outcomes associated with the State Criminal Alien Assistance Program,” Journal of Criminal Justice, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 217–224, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. J. Worrall, “The effects of local law enforcement block grants on serious crime,” Criminology & Public Policy, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 325–350, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  51. J. Zhao, M. Scheider, and Q. Thurman, “Funding community policing to reduce crime: have cops grants made a difference?” Criminology and Public Policy, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 7–32, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  52. B. L. Benson, D. W. Rasmussen, and I. Kim, “Deterrence and public policy: trade-offs in the allocation of police resources,” International Review of Law and Economics, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 77–100, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. Federal Bureau of Investigation, Crime in the United States: 2002 Uniform Crime Reports, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC, USA, 2002.
  54. M. D. Maltz, Bridging Gaps in Police Crime Data, U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, Washington, DC, USA, 1999.
  55. J. L. Worrall and T. V. Kovandzic, “Cops grants and crime revisited,” Criminology, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 159–190, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. Bureau of Justice Assistance, “Drug court discretionary grant program,” 2007, http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/BJA/grant/drugcourts.html. View at Google Scholar
  57. National Center for Health Statistics, “National vital statistics system: data files and documentation,” 2006, http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/about/major/dvs/popbridge/datadoc.htm. View at Google Scholar
  58. S. Levitt, “Using electoral cycles in police hiring to estimate the effect of police on crime: reply,” American Economic Review, vol. 92, no. 4, pp. 1244–1250, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  59. T. V. Kovandzic and J. J. Sloan, “Police levels and crime rates revisited: a county-level analysis from Florida (1980–1998),” Journal of Criminal Justice, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 65–76, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. A. Blumstein and J. Wallman, The Crime Drop in America, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2000.
  61. F. Zimring, The Great American Crime Decline, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA, 2007.
  62. L. Hannon and P. Knapp, “Reassessing nonlinearity in the urban disadvantage/violent crime relationship: an example of methodological bias from log transformation,” Criminology, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 1427–1448, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. B. Benson and P. Zimmerman, Handbook on the Economics of Crime, Edward Elgar, Northampton, Mass, USA, 2010.
  64. W. Spelman, “Specifying the Relationship Between Crime and Prisons,” Journal of Quantitative Criminology, vol. 24, pp. 149–178, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. Bureau of Justice Assistance, “Frequently asked questions series: preplea vs. postplea drug courts,” 2003, Drug Court Clearinghouse, http://www1.spa.american.edu/justice/documents/2011.pdf. View at Google Scholar
  66. C. A. Saum, F. R. Scarpitti, and C. A. Robbins, “Violent offenders in drug court,” Journal of Drug Issues, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 107–128, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. D. Young, “Impacts of perceived legal pressure on retention in drug treatment,” Criminal Justice and Behavior, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 27–55, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. Bureau of Justice Assistance, “Strategies for dealing with young females who violate the drug court program shortly after entry,” 2004, Drug Court Clearinghouse, http://www1.spa.american.edu/justice/document_center.php. View at Google Scholar