Table 8: The whole vehicle torque distribution method.

Operation modeOperating conditionsOperating stateTorque distribution

PED
>
EV mode=

HDCD
>>
MC=0<EV mode=
ICE charge mode=+
MC=1  &  > 0.65ParallelICE drive mode=
Hybrid drive mode=+

HDCS
>
MC=0<   &  ≥0.65SeriesEV mode=
< 0.65ICE charge mode=,=
MC=1  &  ≤0.65ParallelICE charge mode=+
  &  > 0.65ICE drive mode=
Hybrid drive mode=+

where is the battery state of charge; is the battery SOC limit value when entering HDCD mode; is the battery SOC limit value when HDCS mode; is the supercapacitor SOC; MC is the state of mode clutch (0 means the clutch is broken, 1 means clutch is engaged); is the speed of the motor at the current moment; is the speed limit value with clutch engagement; is the required torque at the current moment; , are the ICE minimum and maximum output torque at the current speed, respectively; , and are the torque of ICE, EM, and ISG at the current speed, respectively.