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Journal of Drug Delivery
Volume 2011, Article ID 980720, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/980720
Research Article

Nanoprodrugs of NSAIDs: Preparation and Characterization of Flufenamic Acid Nanoprodrugs

Department of Neurosurgery, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 8631 West Third Street, Suite 800 East, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA

Received 16 December 2010; Revised 31 January 2011; Accepted 6 February 2011

Academic Editor: Sanyog Jain

Copyright © 2011 Bong-Seop Lee et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

We demonstrated that hydrophobic derivatives of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)flufenamic acid (FA), can be formed into stable nanometer-sized prodrugs (nanoprodrugs) that inhibit the growth of glioma cells, suggesting their potential application as anticancer agent. We synthesized highly hydrophobic monomeric and dimeric prodrugs of FA via esterification and prepared nanoprodrugs using spontaneous emulsification mechanism. The nanoprodrugs were in the size range of 120 to 140 nm and physicochemically stable upon long-term storage as aqueous suspension, which is attributed to the strong hydrophobic interaction between prodrug molecules. Importantly, despite the highly hydrophobic nature and water insolubility, nanoprodrugs could be readily activated into the parent drug by porcine liver esterase, presenting a potential new strategy for novel NSAID prodrug design. The nanoprodrug inhibited the growth of U87-MG glioma cells with IC50 of 20 μM, whereas FA showed IC50 of 100 μM, suggesting that more efficient drug delivery was achieved with nanoprodrugs.