Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Drug Delivery
Volume 2015, Article ID 405735, 15 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/405735
Review Article

Reassessing the Role of Intra-Arterial Drug Delivery for Glioblastoma Multiforme Treatment

1Department of Neurological Surgery, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY 10032, USA
2Department of Molecular Cardiology, Texas Heart Institute, Houston, TX 77030, USA
3School of Engineering and Applied Science, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
4Department of Anesthesiology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY 10032, USA

Received 6 September 2015; Accepted 16 November 2015

Academic Editor: S. P. Vyas

Copyright © 2015 Jason A. Ellis et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. Joshi, P. M. Meyers, and E. Ornstein, “Intracarotid delivery of drugs: the potential and the pitfalls,” Anesthesiology, vol. 109, no. 3, pp. 543–564, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. J. Siepmann, F. Siepmann, and A. T. Florence, “Local controlled drug delivery to the brain: mathematical modeling of the underlying mass transport mechanisms,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 314, no. 2, pp. 101–119, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. R. L. Dedrick, “Arterial drug infusion: pharmacokinetic problems and pitfalls,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 80, no. 2, pp. 84–89, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. R. J. Lutz, R. L. Dedrick, J. W. Boretos, E. H. Oldfield, J. B. Blacklock, and J. L. Doppman, “Mixing studies during intracarotid artery infusions in an in vitro model,” Journal of Neurosurgery, vol. 64, no. 2, pp. 277–283, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. R. L. Dedrick, “Interspecies scaling of regional drug delivery,” Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 75, no. 11, pp. 1047–1052, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. J. E. Hardebo and B. Nilsson, “Estimation of cerebral extraction of circulating compounds by the brain uptake index method: influence of circulation time, volume injection, and cerebral blood flow,” Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, vol. 107, no. 2, pp. 153–159, 1979. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. A. Cenic, D. G. Nabavi, R. A. Craen, A. W. Gelb, and T.-Y. Lee, “Dynamic CT measurement of cerebral blood flow: a validation study,” American Journal of Neuroradiology, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 63–73, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. W. H. Oldendorf, “Measurement of the mean transit time of cerebral circulation by external detection of an intravenously injected radioisotope,” Journal of Nuclear Medicine, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 253–269, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. K. L. Zierler, “Occupancy principle: identity with that of mean transit time of tracers in biological systems,” Science, vol. 163, no. 3866, pp. 491–492, 1969. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. S. S. Hossain, T. J. R. Hughes, and P. Decuzzi, “Vascular deposition patterns for nanoparticles in an inflamed patient-specific arterial tree,” Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 585–597, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. S. Joshi, M. Wang, J. J. Etu, E. V. Nishanian, and J. Pile-Spellman, “Cerebral blood flow affects dose requirements of intracarotid propofol for electrocerebral silence,” Anesthesiology, vol. 104, no. 2, pp. 290–298, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. W. M. Pardridge, “Drug transport across the blood-brain barrier,” Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, vol. 32, no. 11, pp. 1959–1972, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. W. M. Pardridge, “Drug targeting, drug discovery, and brain drug development,” in Brain Drug Targeting. The Future of Drug Development, W. M. Pardridge, Ed., chapter 1, pp. 1–12, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  14. Y. P. Gobin, T. F. Cloughesy, K. L. Chow et al., “Intraarterial chemotherapy for brain tumors by using a spatial dose fractionation algorithm and pulsatile delivery,” Radiology, vol. 218, no. 3, pp. 724–732, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. E. H. Oldfield, R. L. Dedrick, R. L. Yeager et al., “Reduced systemic drug exposure by combining intra-arterial chemotherapy with hemoperfusion of regional venous drainage,” Journal of Neurosurgery, vol. 63, no. 5, pp. 726–732, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. H. A. Riina, J.-K. Burkhardt, A. Santillan, L. Bassani, A. Patsalides, and J. A. Boockvar, “Short-term clinico-radiographic response to super-selective intra-arterial cerebral infusion of bevacizumab for the treatment of vestibular schwannomas in neurofibromatosis type 2,” Interventional Neuroradiology, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 127–132, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. J. A. Boockvar, A. J. Tsiouris, C. P. Hofstetter et al., “Safety and maximum tolerated dose of superselective intraarterial cerebral infusion of bevacizumab after osmotic blood-brain barrier disruption for recurrent malignant glioma. Clinical article,” Journal of Neurosurgery, vol. 114, no. 3, pp. 624–632, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. K. L. Chow, Y. P. Gobin, T. Cloughesy, J. W. Sayre, J. P. Villablanca, and F. Viñuela, “Prognostic factors in recurrent glioblastoma multiforme and anaplastic astrocytoma treated with selective intra-arterial chemotherapy,” American Journal of Neuroradiology, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 471–478, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. D. Fortin, A. Desjardins, A. Benko, T. Niyonsega, and M. Boudrias, “Enhanced chemotherapy delivery by intraarterial infusion and blood-brain barrier disruption in malignant brain tumors: the Sherbrooke experience,” Cancer, vol. 103, no. 12, pp. 2606–2615, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. D. Fortin, P.-A. Morin, F. Belzile, D. Mathieu, and F.-M. Paré, “Intra-arterial carboplatin as a salvage strategy in the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme,” Journal of Neuro-Oncology, vol. 119, no. 2, pp. 397–403, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. W. A. Hall, N. D. Doolittle, M. Daman et al., “Osmotic blood-brain barrier disruption chemotherapy for diffuse pontine gliomas,” Journal of Neuro-Oncology, vol. 77, no. 3, pp. 279–284, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. F. Imbesi, E. Marchioni, E. Benericetti et al., “A randomized phase III study: comparison between intravenous and intraarterial ACNU administration in newly diagnosed primary glioblastomas,” Anticancer Research, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 553–558, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. J. Y. Jeon, I. Kovanlikaya, J. A. Boockvar et al., “Metabolic response of glioblastoma to superselective intra-arterial cerebral infusion of bevacizumab: a proton MR spectroscopic imaging study,” American Journal of Neuroradiology, vol. 33, no. 11, pp. 2095–2102, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. A. I. Qureshi, M. F. K. Suri, J. Khan et al., “Superselective intra-arterial carboplatin for treatment of intracranial neoplasms: experience in 100 procedures,” Journal of Neuro-Oncology, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 151–158, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. B. J. Shin, J.-K. Burkhardt, H. A. Riina, and J. A. Boockvar, “Superselective intra-arterial cerebral infusion of novel agents after blood-brain disruption for the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme: a technical case series,” Neurosurgery Clinics of North America, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 323–329, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. S. Joshi, J. A. Ellis, E. Ornstein, and J. N. Bruce, “Intraarterial drug delivery for glioblastoma mutiforme: will the phoenix rise again?” Journal of Neuro-Oncology, vol. 124, no. 3, pp. 333–343, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  27. J. Wada, “A new method for the determination of the side of cerebral dominance. A preliminary report of intracarotid injection of sodium amytal in man,” Igaku to Seibutsugaku, vol. 14, pp. 221–222, 1949. View at Google Scholar
  28. C. T. Klopp, T. C. Alford, J. Bateman, G. N. Berry, and T. Winship, “Fractionated intra-arterial cancer; chemotherapy with methyl bis amine hydrochloride; a preliminary report,” Annals of Surgery, vol. 132, no. 4, pp. 811–832, 1950. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. D. H. Abramson, I. J. Dunkel, S. E. Brodie, J. W. Kim, and Y. P. Gobin, “A phase I/II study of direct intraarterial (ophthalmic artery) chemotherapy with melphalan for intraocular retinoblastoma initial results,” Ophthalmology, vol. 115, no. 8, pp. 1398–1404.e1, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. D. H. Abramson, J. H. Francis, I. J. Dunkel, B. P. Marr, S. E. Brodie, and Y. P. Gobin, “Ophthalmic artery chemosurgery for retinoblastoma prevents new intraocular tumors,” Ophthalmology, vol. 120, no. 3, pp. 560–565, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. V. Cristina, M. Pracht, Y. Lachenal et al., “Interventional radiology procedures for malignancies of the liver treatment: intraarterial procedures,” Revue Medicale Suisse, vol. 10, no. 431, pp. 1130–1135, 2014. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. J. H. Francis, C. A. Barker, S. L. Wolden et al., “Salvage/adjuvant brachytherapy after ophthalmic artery chemosurgery for intraocular retinoblastoma,” International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics, vol. 87, no. 3, pp. 517–523, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. Y. P. Gobin, I. J. Dunkel, B. P. Marr, J. H. Francis, S. E. Brodie, and D. H. Abramson, “Combined, sequential intravenous and intra-arterial chemotherapy (bridge chemotherapy) for young infants with retinoblastoma,” PLoS ONE, vol. 7, no. 9, Article ID e44322, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. P.-H. Chiang, C.-H. Chen, and Y.-C. Shen, “Intraarterial chemotherapy as the first-line therapy in penile cancer,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 111, no. 6, pp. 1089–1094, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. H. Homma, T. Doi, S. Mezawa et al., “A novel arterial infusion chemotherapy for the treatment of patients with advanced pancreatic carcinoma after vascular supply distribution via superselective embolization,” Cancer, vol. 89, no. 2, pp. 303–313, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. L. J. Jiang, Z. L. Zhang, P. Dong et al., “Efficacy of radical cystectomy plus adjuvant intraarterial chemotherapy with gemcitabine and cisplatin on locally advanced bladder cancer,” Chinese Medical Journal, vol. 127, no. 7, pp. 1249–1254, 2014. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. T. Nakasato, K. Katoh, M. Sone et al., “Superselective continuous arterial infusion chemotherapy through the superficial temporal artery for oral cavity tumors,” American Journal of Neuroradiology, vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 1917–1922, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. O. M. Rashid, S. Sloot, and J. S. Zager, “Regional therapy in metastatic melanoma: an update on minimally invasive intraarterial isolated limb infusion and percutaneous hepatic perfusion,” Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology, vol. 10, no. 10, pp. 1355–1364, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. X. Wang, C. Gan, H. Li et al., “Main complications and results of treatment with intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy through the subclavian and thoracic arteries for locally advanced breast cancer,” Molecular and Clinical Oncology, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 745–748, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  40. A. Ergin, M. Wang, J. Zhang, I. Bigio, and S. Joshi, “Noninvasive in vivo optical assessment of blood brain barrier permeability and brain tissue drug deposition in rabbits,” Journal of Biomedical Optics, vol. 17, no. 5, Article ID 057008, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. R. P. Singh-Moon, D. M. Roblyer, I. J. Bigio, and S. Joshi, “Spatial mapping of drug delivery to brain tissue using hyperspectral spatial frequency-domain imaging,” Journal of Biomedical Optics, vol. 19, no. 9, Article ID 096003, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. S. Joshi, R. P. Singh-Moon, J. A. Ellis et al., “Cerebral hypoperfusion-assisted intra-arterial deposition of liposomes in normal and glioma-bearing rats,” Neurosurgery, vol. 76, no. 1, pp. 92–100, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  43. R. Reif, M. Wang, S. Joshi, O. A’Amar, and I. J. Bigio, “Optical method for real-time monitoring of drug concentrations facilitates the development of novel methods for drug delivery to brain tissue,” Journal of Biomedical Optics, vol. 12, no. 3, Article ID 034036, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. H. A. Riina, J. Knopman, J. P. Greenfield et al., “Balloon-assisted superselective intra-arterial cerebral infusion of bevacizumab for malignant brainstem glioma. A technical note,” Interventional Neuroradiology, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 71–76, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  45. D.-Y. Cho and T. M. Przytycka, “Dissecting cancer heterogeneity with a probabilistic genotype-phenotype model,” Nucleic Acids Research, vol. 41, no. 17, pp. 8011–8020, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. W. Hollmann, “Werner Forssmann, Eberswalde, the 1956 Nobel Prize for medicine,” European Journal of Medical Research, vol. 11, no. 10, pp. 409–412, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  47. R. Forssmann-Falck, “Werner Forssmann: a pioneer of cardiology,” The American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 79, no. 5, pp. 651–660, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. M. G. Bourassa, “The history of cardiac catheterization,” The Canadian Journal of Cardiology, vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 1011–1014, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. J. Wada and T. Rassmussen, “Intracarotid injection of sodium amytal for the lateralization of cerebral speech dominance: experimental and clinical observations,” Journal of Neurosurgery, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 266–282, 1960. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  50. K. Wagner, C. Hader, B. Metternich, F. Buschmann, R. Schwarzwald, and A. Schulze-Bonhage, “Who needs a Wada test? Present clinical indications for amobarbital procedures,” Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, vol. 83, no. 5, pp. 503–509, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. C. D. Bonner, A. Thurman, and F. Homburger, “A critical study of regional intra-arterial nitrogen mustard therapy in cancer,” Annals of Surgery, vol. 136, no. 6, pp. 912–918, 1952. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. J. D. French, P. M. West, F. K. Von Amerongen, and H. W. Magoun, “Effects of intracarotid administration of nitrogen mustard on normal brain and brain tumors,” Journal of Neurosurgery, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 378–389, 1952. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. C. B. Wilson, “Chemotherapy of brain tumors by continuous arterial infusion,” Surgery, vol. 55, no. 5, pp. 640–653, 1964. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. C. B. Wilson, “Chemotherapy of brain tumors,” Advances in Neurology, vol. 15, pp. 361–367, 1976. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. C. B. Wilson, P. Gutin, E. B. Boldrey, D. Drafts, V. A. Levin, and K. J. Enot, “Single-agent chemotherapy of brain tumors. A five-year review,” Archives of Neurology, vol. 33, no. 11, pp. 739–744, 1976. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  56. S. I. Rapoport, M. Hori, and I. Klatzo, “Reversible osmotic opening of the blood-brain barrier,” Science, vol. 173, no. 4001, pp. 1026–1028, 1971. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. S. I. Rapoport, M. Hori, and I. Klatzo, “Testing of a hypothesis for osmotic opening of the blood-brain barrier,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 223, no. 2, pp. 323–331, 1972. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. R. L. Dedrick, E. H. Oldfield, and J. M. Collins, “Arterial drug infusion with extracorporeal removal. I. Theoretic basis with particular reference to the brain,” Cancer Treatment Reports, vol. 68, no. 2, pp. 373–380, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. E. H. Oldfield, W. C. Clark, R. L. Dedrick et al., “Reduced systemic drug exposure by combining intraarterial cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) with hemodialysis of regional venous drainage,” Cancer Research, vol. 47, no. 7, pp. 1962–1967, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. E. H. Oldfield, R. L. Dedrick, D. C. Chatterji et al., “Arterial drug infusion with extracorporeal removal. II. Internal carotid carmustine in the rhesus monkey,” Cancer Treatment Reports, vol. 69, no. 3, pp. 293–303, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. S. J. Hassenbusch, J. H. Anderson, and D. M. Whiting, “Intra-arterial chemotherapy for brain tumors,” Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 513–520, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. G. Di Chiro, E. Oldfield, D. C. Wright et al., “Cerebral necrosis after radiotherapy and/or intraarterial chemotherapy for brain tumors: PET and neuropathologic studies,” American Journal of Roentgenology, vol. 150, no. 1, pp. 189–197, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. L. Pickrell and V. Purvin, “Ischemic optic neuropathy secondary to intracarotid infusion of BCNU,” Journal of Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 87–92, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. K. Suda, S. Nakasu, and A. Saito, “Ocular complication of combined intracarotid chemotherapy and osmotic blood-brain barrier disruption,” Nihon Geka Hokan. Archiv fur Japanische Chirurgie, vol. 54, pp. 359–363, 1985. View at Google Scholar
  65. J. C. Tonn, K. Roosen, and W. Schachenmayr, “Brain necroses after intraarterial chemotherapy and irradiation of malignant gliomas—a complication of both ACNU and BCNU?” Journal of Neuro-Oncology, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 241–242, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. E. Neuwelt, N. J. Abbott, L. Abrey et al., “Strategies to advance translational research into brain barriers,” The Lancet Neurology, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 84–96, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. E. Neuwelt, Implications of the Blood-Brain Barrier and Its Manipulation, Plenum Press, New York, NY, USA, 1988.
  68. A. B. Reese, G. A. Hyman, G. R. Merriam Jr., A. W. Forrest, and M. M. Kligerman, “Treatment of retinoblastoma by radiation and triethylenemelamine,” AMA Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 505–513, 1954. View at Google Scholar
  69. C. L. Shields, F. P. Manjandavida, S. E. Lally et al., “Intra-arterial chemotherapy for retinoblastoma in 70 eyes: outcomes based on the international classification of retinoblastoma,” Ophthalmology, vol. 121, no. 7, pp. 1453–1460, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. J. H. Francis, Y. P. Gobin, S. E. Brodie, B. P. Marr, I. J. Dunkel, and D. H. Abramson, “Experience of intra-arterial chemosurgery with single agent carboplatin for retinoblastoma,” The British Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 96, no. 9, pp. 1270–1271, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. J. H. Francis, Y. P. Gobin, I. J. Dunkel et al., “Carboplatin +/− topotecan ophthalmic artery chemosurgery for intraocular retinoblastoma,” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 8, Article ID e72441, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. R. D. Sullivan, J. W. Norcross, and E. Watkins Jr., “Chemotherapy of metastatic liver cancer by prolonged hepatic-artery infusion,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 270, pp. 321–327, 1964. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. L. M. Boehm, T. T. Jayakrishnan, J. T. Miura et al., “Comparative effectiveness of hepatic artery based therapies for unresectable intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma,” Journal of Surgical Oncology, vol. 111, no. 2, pp. 213–220, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. T. De Baere and P. Mariani, “Surgical or percutaneous hepatic artery cannulation for chemotherapy,” Journal of Visceral Surgery, vol. 151, supplement 1, pp. S17–S20, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. F. O. Stephens, P. Crea, G. J. Harker, B. A. Roberts, and C. K. Hambly, “Intra-arterial chemotherapy as basal treatment in advanced and fungating primary breast cancer,” The Lancet, vol. 2, no. 8192, pp. 435–438, 1980. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. W. Zhang, R. Liu, Y. Wang et al., “Efficacy of intraarterial chemoinfusion therapy for locally advanced breast cancer patients: a retrospective analysis of 28 cases,” OncoTargets and Therapy, vol. 6, pp. 761–765, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. Y. Koike, K. Takizawa, Y. Ogawa, and Y. Nakajima, “Bilateral approach of redistributed subclavian arterial infusion chemotherapy for locally advanced breast cancer spreading to the contralateral chest wall,” Acta Radiologica, vol. 53, no. 7, pp. 750–753, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. C. L. Appin and D. J. Brat, “Molecular pathways in gliomagenesis and their relevance to neuropathologic diagnosis,” Advances in Anatomic Pathology, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 50–58, 2015. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. M. Ranjit, K. Motomura, F. Ohka, T. Wakabayashi, and A. Natsume, “Applicable advances in the molecular pathology of glioblastoma,” Brain Tumor Pathology, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 153–162, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  80. R. C. Rockne, A. D. Trister, J. Jacobs et al., “A patient-specific computational model of hypoxia-modulated radiation resistance in glioblastoma using 18F-FMISO-PET,” Journal of the Royal Society Interface, vol. 12, no. 103, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  81. F. Yuan, H. A. Salehi, Y. Boucher, U. S. Vasthare, R. F. Tuma, and R. K. Jain, “Vascular permeability and microcirculation of gliomas and mammary carcinomas transplanted in rat and mouse cranial windows,” Cancer Research, vol. 54, no. 17, pp. 4564–4568, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. H. B. Newton, “Intra-arterial chemotherapy of primary brain tumors,” Current Treatment Options in Oncology, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 519–530, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. W. D. Obrist and W. E. Wilkinson, “Regional cerebral blood flow measurement in humans by xenon-133 clearance,” Cerebrovascular and Brain Metabolism Reviews, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 283–327, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. S. Joshi, W. L. Young, J. Pile-Spellman et al., “Intra-arterial nitrovasodilators do not increase cerebral blood flow in angiographically normal territories of arteriovenous malformation patients,” Stroke, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 1115–1122, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. D. R. Jones, S. D. Hall, E. K. Jackson, R. A. Branch, and G. R. Wilkinson, “Brain uptake of benzodiazepines: effects of lipophilicity and plasma protein binding,” Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 245, no. 3, pp. 816–822, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. Y. Liu, S. Shah, and J. Tan, “Computational modeling of nanoparticle targeted drug delivery,” Reviews in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 66–83, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  87. S. Mitsuki, M. Diksic, T. Conway, Y. L. Yamamoto, J.-G. Villemure, and W. Feindel, “Pharmacokinetics of 11C-labelled BCNU and SarCNU in gliomas studied by PET,” Journal of Neuro-Oncology, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 47–55, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. J. L. Tyler, Y. L. Yamamoto, M. Diksic et al., “Pharmacokinetics of superselective intra-arterial and intravenous [11C]BCNU evaluated by PET,” Journal of Nuclear Medicine, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 775–780, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. T. Satou, M. Shibata, T. Kawaguchi, and S. Takenoshita, “Intraarterial chemotherapy combined with the concept of pharmacoangiogram using noradrenalin,” Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy, vol. 39, no. 12, pp. 1863–1866, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  90. D. A. Boas and R. D. Frostig, “Optics in neuroscience,” Journal of Biomedical Optics, vol. 10, no. 1, Article ID 011001, 2 pages, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  91. A. Devor, S. Sakadžić, V. J. Srinivasan et al., “Frontiers in optical imaging of cerebral blood flow and metabolism,” Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, vol. 32, no. 7, pp. 1259–1276, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. E. M. C. Hillman, “Optical brain imaging in vivo: techniques and applications from animal to man,” Journal of Biomedical Optics, vol. 12, no. 5, Article ID 051402, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. V. J. Srinivasan, D. N. Atochin, H. Radhakrishnan et al., “Optical coherence tomography for the quantitative study of cerebrovascular physiology,” Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 1339–1345, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. S. Joshi, R. Singh-Moon, M. Wang et al., “Cationic surface charge enhances early regional deposition of liposomes after intracarotid injection,” Journal of Neuro-Oncology, vol. 120, no. 3, pp. 489–497, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. S. Joshi, R. P. Singh-Moon, M. Wang et al., “Transient cerebral hypoperfusion assisted intraarterial cationic liposome delivery to brain tissue,” Journal of Neuro-Oncology, vol. 118, no. 1, pp. 73–82, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. S. Joshi, M. Wang, J. J. Etu et al., “Transient cerebral hypoperfusion enhances intraarterial carmustine deposition into brain tissue,” Journal of Neuro-Oncology, vol. 86, no. 2, pp. 123–132, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. S. C. Saris, R. G. Blasberg, R. E. Carson et al., “Intravascular streaming during carotid artery infusions. Demonstration in humans and reduction using diastole-phased pulsatile administration,” Journal of Neurosurgery, vol. 74, no. 5, pp. 763–772, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. S. C. Saris, D. C. Wright, E. H. Oldfield, and R. G. Blasberg, “Intravascular streaming and variable delivery to brain following carotid artery infusions in the Sprague-Dawley rat,” Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 116–120, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. S. C. Saris, D. R. Shook, R. G. Blasberg et al., “Carotid artery mixing with diastole-phased pulsed drug infusion,” Journal of Neurosurgery, vol. 67, no. 5, pp. 721–725, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. A. Haag, S. Knake, H. M. Hamer et al., “The Wada test in Austrian, Dutch, German, and Swiss epilepsy centers from 2000 to 2005: a review of 1421 procedures,” Epilepsy & Behavior, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 83–89, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. J. T. Fifi, P. M. Meyers, S. D. Lavine et al., “Complications of modern diagnostic cerebral angiography in an academic medical center,” Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 442–447, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. H. M. Wu, A. G. Lee, D. E. Lehane, T. L. Chi, and R. A. Lewis, “Ocular and orbital complications of intraarterial cisplatin. A case report,” Journal of Neuro-Ophthalmology, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 195–198, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. N. D. Doolittle, L. L. Muldoon, A. Y. Culp, and E. A. Neuwelt, “Delivery of chemotherapeutics across the blood-brain barrier: challenges and advances,” Advances in Pharmacology, vol. 71, pp. 203–243, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. R. B. Vance, J. Pittisapu, and J. P. Kapp, “Experiences with sodium thiosulfate after intracarotid infusion of cisplatin and BCNU for malignant gliomas,” Journal of Neuro-Oncology, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 151–154, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. H. Nakagawa, T. Fujita, S. Izumoto, S. Kubo, Y. Nakajima, and K. Turuzono, “Distribution of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum in patients with metastatic brain tumors after intravenous or intracarotid administration,” Cancer & Chemotherapy, vol. 18, pp. 103–109, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  106. I. van Rooy, S. Cakir-Tascioglu, W. E. Hennink, G. Storm, R. M. Schiffelers, and E. Mastrobattista, “In vivo methods to study uptake of nanoparticles into the brain,” Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 456–471, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. Y. Takasato, S. I. Rapoport, and Q. R. Smith, “An in situ brain perfusion technique to study cerebrovascular transport in the rat,” The American Journal of Physiology, vol. 247, no. 3, pp. H484–H493, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. W. H. Oldendorf, “Measurement of brain uptake of radiolabeled substances using a tritiated water internal standard,” Brain Research, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 372–376, 1970. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. W. H. Oldendorf, “Lipid solubility and drug penetration of the blood brain barrier,” Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology & Medicine, vol. 147, no. 3, pp. 813–815, 1974. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. M. Nakashima, S. Shibata, Y. Tokunaga et al., “In-vivo microdialysis study of the distribution of cisplatin into brain tumour tissue after intracarotid infusion in rats with 9L malignant glioma,” Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, vol. 49, no. 8, pp. 777–780, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. Y. Tokunaga, M. Nakashima, H. Sasaki et al., “Local distribution into brain tumor and pharmacokinetics of 4-pyridoxate diammine hydroxy platinum, a novel cisplatin derivative, after intracarotid administration in rats with 9L malignant glioma: simultaneous brain microdialysis study,” Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 23, no. 12, pp. 1491–1496, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. Y. Sawada, R. Kawai, M. McManaway et al., “Kinetic analysis of transport and opioid receptor binding of [3H](−)-cyclofoxy in rat brain in vivo: implications for human studies,” Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 183–203, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. I. J. Bigio and S. G. Bown, “Spectroscopic sensing of cancer and cancer therapy: current status of translational research,” Cancer Biology and Therapy, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 259–267, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. I. J. Bigio, J. R. Mourant, and G. Los, “Noninvasive, in-situ measurement of drug concentrations in tissue using optical spectroscopy,” Journal of Gravitational Physiology, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 173–175, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  115. J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, G. Los, and I. J. Bigio, “Non-invasive measurement of chemotherapy drug concentrations in tissue: preliminary demonstrations of in vivo measurements,” Physics in Medicine and Biology, vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 1397–1417, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  116. E. Reichenthal, P. H. Hollis, G. J. Senior, M. L. Cohen, and R. S. Zappulla, “The feasibility of low dose barbiturate administration by intra-carotid infusion to achieve EEG burst suppression—a preliminary report,” Neurochirurgia, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 50–53, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  117. C. Iaccarino, E. Orlandi, F. Ruggeri et al., “Prognostic value of MGMT promoter status in non-resectable glioblastoma after adjuvant therapy,” Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery, vol. 132, pp. 1–8, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  118. Y. Wang, X. Chen, Z. Zhang et al., “Comparison of the clinical efficacy of temozolomide (TMZ) versus nimustine (ACNU)-based chemotherapy in newly diagnosed glioblastoma,” Neurosurgical Review, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 73–78, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  119. A. Charidimou, J.-C. Baron, and D. J. Werring, “Transient focal neurological episodes, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, and intracerebral hemorrhage risk: looking beyond TIAs,” International Journal of Stroke, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 105–108, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  120. A. K. Vellimana, Y. Kadkhodayan, K. M. Rich et al., “Symptomatic patients with intraluminal carotid artery thrombus: outcome with a strategy of initial anticoagulation,” Journal of Neurosurgery, vol. 118, no. 1, pp. 34–41, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  121. C. N. Ionita, V. L. Garcia, D. R. Bednarek et al., “Effect of injection technique on temporal parametric imaging derived from digital subtraction angiography in patient specific phantoms,” in Medical Imaging: Biomedical Applications in Molecular, Structural, and Functional Imaging, vol. 9038 of Proceedings of SPIE, International Society for Optical Engineering, San Diego, Calif, USA, March 2014.
  122. S. Hoelder, P. A. Clarke, and P. Workman, “Discovery of small molecule cancer drugs: successes, challenges and opportunities,” Molecular Oncology, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 155–176, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  123. N. H. Greig, E. M. Daly, D. J. Sweeney, and S. I. Rapoport, “Pharmacokinetics of chlorambucil-tertiary butyl ester, a lipophilic chlorambucil derivative that achieves and maintains high concentrations in brain,” Cancer Chemotherapy & Pharmacology, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 320–325, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  124. D. C. Drummond, O. Meyer, K. Hong, D. B. Kirpotin, and D. Papahadjopoulos, “Optimizing liposomes for delivery of chemotherapeutic agents to solid tumors,” Pharmacological Reviews, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 691–743, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  125. A. S. Y. Chan, S. Y. Leung, M. P. Wong et al., “Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptors in the anaplastic progression of astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, and ependymoma,” The American Journal of Surgical Pathology, vol. 22, no. 7, pp. 816–826, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  126. Y.-S. Chen and Z.-P. Chen, “Vasculogenic mimicry: a novel target for glioma therapy,” Chinese Journal of Cancer, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 74–79, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  127. P. M. Friden, T. S. Olson, R. Obar, L. R. Walus, and S. D. Putney, “Characterization, receptor mapping and blood-brain barrier transcytosis of antibodies to the human transferrin receptor,” Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 278, no. 3, pp. 1491–1498, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  128. P. M. Friden, L. R. Walus, G. F. Musso, M. A. Taylor, B. Malfroy, and R. M. Starzyk, “Anti-transferrin receptor antibody and antibody-drug conjugates cross the blood-brain barrier,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 88, no. 11, pp. 4771–4775, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  129. M. Kinoshita, N. McDannold, F. A. Jolesz, and K. Hynynen, “Targeted delivery of antibodies through the blood-brain barrier by MRI-guided focused ultrasound,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 340, no. 4, pp. 1085–1090, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  130. H.-L. Liu, H.-W. Yang, M.-Y. Hua, and K.-C. Wei, “Enhanced therapeutic agent delivery through magnetic resonance imaging-monitored focused ultrasound blood-brain barrier disruption for brain tumor treatment: an overview of the current preclinical status,” Neurosurgical Focus, vol. 32, article E4, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  131. S. Joshi, M. Wang, and R. Singh-Moon, “Feasibility of intra-arterial drug delivery to brain tissue using cell penetrating peptides,” Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology, vol. 25, article 465, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  132. W. M. Pardridge, J. L. Buciak, and P. M. Friden, “Selective transport of an anti-transferrin receptor antibody through the blood-brain barrier in vivo,” Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 259, no. 1, pp. 66–70, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  133. S. S. Agarwala and J. M. Kirkwood, “Temozolomide, a novel alkylating agent with activity in the central nervous system, may improve the treatment of advanced metastatic melanoma,” The Oncologist, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 144–151, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus