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Journal of Drug Delivery
Volume 2016, Article ID 3810175, 10 pages
Research Article

Poly(lactic-co-glycolic) Acid-Chitosan Dual Loaded Nanoparticles for Antiretroviral Nanoformulations

1School of Pharmacy, University of Zimbabwe, P.O. Box MP167, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe
2The Institute of Lasers, Photonics and Biophotonics, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14260, USA
3Center for Integrated Global Health Sciences, Translational Pharmacology Research Core, New York State Center of Excellence in Bioinformatics and Life Sciences, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14203, USA
4School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214, USA

Received 16 January 2016; Revised 11 March 2016; Accepted 20 March 2016

Academic Editor: Philippe Maincent

Copyright © 2016 Faithful Makita-Chingombe et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) chitosan (CS) coated nanoparticles (NPs) were loaded with two antiretrovirals (ARVs) either lamivudine (LMV) which is hydrophilic or nevirapine (NVP) which is hydrophobic or both LMV and NVP. These ARVs are of importance in resource-limited settings, where they are commonly used in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) treatment due to affordability and accessibility. NPs prepared by a water-oil-water emulsion and reduced pressure solvent evaporation technique were determined to have a positive zeta potential, a capsule-like morphology, and an average hydrodynamic diameter of 240 nm. Entrapment of NVP as a single ARV had a notable increase in NP size compared to LMV alone or in combination with LMV. NPs stored at room temperature in distilled water maintained size, polydispersity (PDI), and zeta potential for one year. No changes in size, PDI, and zeta potential were observed for NPs in 10% sucrose in lyophilized or nonlyophilized states stored at 4°C and −20°C, respectively. Freezing NPs in the absence of sucrose increased NP size. Drug loading, encapsulation efficiency, and kinetic release profiles were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Our novel nanoformulations have the potential to improve patient outcomes and expand drug access in resource-limited countries for the treatment of HIV-1.