Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Drug Delivery
Volume 2016, Article ID 3810175, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/3810175
Research Article

Poly(lactic-co-glycolic) Acid-Chitosan Dual Loaded Nanoparticles for Antiretroviral Nanoformulations

1School of Pharmacy, University of Zimbabwe, P.O. Box MP167, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe
2The Institute of Lasers, Photonics and Biophotonics, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14260, USA
3Center for Integrated Global Health Sciences, Translational Pharmacology Research Core, New York State Center of Excellence in Bioinformatics and Life Sciences, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14203, USA
4School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214, USA

Received 16 January 2016; Revised 11 March 2016; Accepted 20 March 2016

Academic Editor: Philippe Maincent

Copyright © 2016 Faithful Makita-Chingombe et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. World Health Organization, “HIV/AIDS Fact Sheet,” http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs360/en/.
  2. UNAIDS, “How AIDS changed everything—MDG6: 15 years, 15 lessons of hope from the AIDS response,” http://www.unaids.org/en/resources/documents/2015/MDG6_15years-15lessonsfromtheAIDSresponse.
  3. World Health Organization, Consolidated Guidelines on the Use of Antiretroviral Drugs for Treating and Preventing HIV Infection, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2013, http://www.who.int/hiv/pub/guidelines/arv2013/download/en/.
  4. National Institutes of Health, “Guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents in HIV-1-infected adults and adolescents,” https://aidsinfo.nih.gov/guidelines/html/1/adult-and-adolescent-treatment-guidelines/0.
  5. S. Mitra, U. Gaur, P. C. Ghosh, and A. N. Maitra, “Tumour targeted delivery of encapsulated dextran-doxorubicin conjugate using chitosan nanoparticles as carrier,” Journal of Controlled Release, vol. 74, no. 1–3, pp. 317–323, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. E. Miele, G. P. Spinelli, E. Miele, F. Tomao, and S. Tomao, “Albumin-bound formulation of paclitaxel (Abraxane ABI-007) in the treatment of breast cancer,” International Journal of Nanomedicine, vol. 4, pp. 99–105, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  7. F. Danhier, E. Ansorena, J. M. Silva, R. Coco, A. Le Breton, and V. Préat, “PLGA-based nanoparticles: an overview of biomedical applications,” Journal of Controlled Release, vol. 161, no. 2, pp. 505–522, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. S. D. Mahajan, I. Roy, G. Xu et al., “Enhancing the delivery of anti retroviral drug ‘saquinavir’ across the blood brain barrier using nanoparticles,” Current HIV Research, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 396–404, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. M. I. Alam, S. Beg, A. Samad et al., “Strategy for effective brain drug delivery,” European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 385–403, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. K. Nagpal, S. K. Singh, and D. N. Mishra, “Drug targeting to brain: a systematic approach to study the factors, parameters and approaches for prediction of permeability of drugs across BBB,” Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery, vol. 10, no. 7, pp. 927–955, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. A. Dube, J. L. Reynolds, W.-C. Law, C. C. Maponga, P. N. Prasad, and G. D. Morse, “Multimodal nanoparticles that provide immunomodulation and intracellular drug delivery for infectious diseases,” Nanomedicine, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 831–838, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. H. Dai, X. Jiang, G. C. Y. Tan et al., “Chitosan-DNA nanoparticles delivered by intrabiliary infusion enhance liver-targeted gene delivery,” International Journal of Nanomedicine, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 507–522, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. Wang, Y. Zhang, J. Feng et al., “Preparation, characterization, and in vitro and in vivo investigation of chitosan-coated poly (d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles for intestinal delivery of exendin-4,” International Journal of Nanomedicine, vol. 8, pp. 1141–1154, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. S. H. Bakhru, E. Altiok, C. Highley et al., “Enhanced cellular uptake and long-term retention of chitosan-modified iron-oxide nanoparticles for MRI-based cell tracking,” International Journal of Nanomedicine, vol. 7, pp. 4613–4623, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. L. Chronopoulou, M. Massimi, M. F. Giardi et al., “Chitosan-coated PLGA nanoparticles: a sustained drug release strategy for cell cultures,” Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, vol. 103, pp. 310–317, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. Y. Luo, Z. Teng, Y. Li, and Q. Wang, “Solid lipid nanoparticles for oral drug delivery: chitosan coating improves stability, controlled delivery, mucoadhesion and cellular uptake,” Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 122, pp. 221–229, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. P. N. Prasad, Introduction to Nanomedicine and Nanobioengineering, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 2012.
  18. H. L. Kutscher, F. Makita-Chingombe, S. DiTursi et al., “Macrophage targeted nanoparticles for antiretroviral (ARV) delivery,” Journal of Personalized NanoMedicine, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 40–48, 2015. View at Google Scholar
  19. C. Stigliano, S. Aryal, M. D. de Tullio et al., “siRNA-chitosan complexes in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles for the silencing of aquaporin-1 in cancer cells,” Molecular Pharmaceutics, vol. 10, no. 8, pp. 3186–3194, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. N. L. Rezk, R. R. Tidwell, and A. D. M. Kashuba, “Simultaneous determination of six HIV nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors and nevirapine by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet absorbance detection,” Journal of Chromatography B, vol. 791, no. 1-2, pp. 137–147, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. A. G. Nelson, X. Zhang, U. Ganapathi et al., “Drug delivery strategies and systems for HIV/AIDS pre-exposure prophylaxis and treatment,” Journal of Controlled Release, vol. 219, pp. 669–680, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. H. L. Kutscher, P. N. Prasad, G. D. Morse, and J. L. Reynolds, “Emerging nanomedicine approaches to targeting HIV-1 and antiretroviral therapy,” Future Virology, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 101–104, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. B. J. Edagwa, T. Zhou, J. M. McMillan, X.-M. Liu, and H. E. Gendelman, “Development of HIV reservoir targeted long acting nanoformulated antiretroviral therapies,” Current Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 21, no. 36, pp. 4186–4198, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. A. Lamprecht, N. Ubrich, M. Hombreiro Pérez, C.-M. Lehr, M. Hoffman, and P. Maincent, “Biodegradable monodispersed nanoparticles prepared by pressure homogenization-emulsification,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 184, no. 1, pp. 97–105, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. E. Piñón-Segundo, M. G. Nava-Arzaluz, and D. Lechuga-Ballesteros, “Pharmaceutical polymeric nanoparticles prepared by the double emulsion-solvent evaporation technique,” Recent Patents on Drug Delivery and Formulation, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 224–235, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. nanoComposix, “nanoComposix' guide to dynamic light scattering measurement and analysis,” 2015, https://cdn.shopify.com/s/files/1/0257/8237/files/nanoComposix_Guidelines_for_DLS_Measurements_and_Analysis.pdf.
  27. http://www.nbip.dcu.ie/papers/DLS.pdf.
  28. H. Cui, Y. Feng, W. Ren, T. Zeng, H. Lv, and Y. Pan, “Strategies of large scale synthesis of monodisperse nanoparticles,” Recent Patents on Nanotechnology, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 32–41, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. T. Sugimoto, Monodispersed Particles, 2001.
  30. W. Abdelwahed, G. Degobert, S. Stainmesse, and H. Fessi, “Freeze-drying of nanoparticles: formulation, process and storage considerations,” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, vol. 58, no. 15, pp. 1688–1713, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. M. H. Golden, D. C. Cooper, M. T. Riebe, and K. E. Carswell, “A matrixed approach to long-term stability testing of pharmaceutical products,” Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 85, no. 2, pp. 240–245, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. L. Wu, J. Zhang, and W. Watanabe, “Physical and chemical stability of drug nanoparticles,” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, vol. 63, no. 6, pp. 456–469, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. S. J. Kim, S. J. Park, and S. I. Kim, “Swelling behavior of interpenetrating polymer network hydrogels composed of poly(vinyl alcohol) and chitosan,” Reactive and Functional Polymers, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 53–59, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. K. Yao, J. Li, F. Yao, and Y. Yin, Chitosan-Based Hydrogels: Functions and Applications, CRC Press, 2011.
  35. M. Holzer, V. Vogel, W. Mäntele, D. Schwartz, W. Haase, and K. Langer, “Physico-chemical characterisation of PLGA nanoparticles after freeze-drying and storage,” European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, vol. 72, no. 2, pp. 428–437, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. N. M. Khalil, E. Carraro, L. F. Cótica, and R. M. Mainardes, “Potential of polymeric nanoparticles in AIDS treatment and prevention,” Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 95–112, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. S. Dash, P. N. Murthy, L. Nath, and P. Chowdhury, “Kinetic modeling on drug release from controlled drug delivery systems,” Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica, vol. 67, no. 3, pp. 217–223, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. B. L. Fredericksen, B. L. Wei, J. Yao, T. Luo, and J. V. Garcia, “Inhibition of endosomal/lysosomal degradation increases the infectivity of human immunodeficiency virus,” Journal of Virology, vol. 76, no. 22, pp. 11440–11446, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. B. L. Wei, P. W. Denton, E. O'Neill, T. Luo, J. L. Foster, and J. V. Garcia, “Inhibition of lysosome and proteasome function enhances human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection,” Journal of Virology, vol. 79, no. 9, pp. 5705–5712, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. A. Sorkin and M. von Zastrow, “Signal transduction and endocytosis: close encounters of many kinds,” Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology, vol. 3, no. 8, pp. 600–614, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. K. S. Soppimath, T. M. Aminabhavi, A. R. Kulkarni, and W. E. Rudzinski, “Biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles as drug delivery devices,” Journal of Controlled Release, vol. 70, no. 1-2, pp. 1–20, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. S. Balkundi, A. S. Nowacek, R. S. Veerubhotla et al., “Comparative manufacture and cell-based delivery of antiretroviral nanoformulations,” International Journal of Nanomedicine, vol. 6, pp. 3393–3404, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. S. Fredenberg, M. Wahlgren, M. Reslow, and A. Axelsson, “The mechanisms of drug release in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-based drug delivery systems—a review,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 415, no. 1-2, pp. 34–52, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. M. Körber, “PLGA erosion: solubility- or diffusion-controlled?” Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 27, no. 11, pp. 2414–2420, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. M. Miyajima, A. Koshika, J. I. Okada, A. Kusai, and M. Ikeda, “The effects of drug physico-chemical properties on release from copoly (lactic/glycolic acid) matrix,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 169, no. 2, pp. 255–263, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. B. Wang, G. Chen, Z. Mao, Y. Zhang, D. Yu, and C. Gao, “Preparation and cellular uptake of PLGA particles loaded with lamivudine,” Chinese Science Bulletin, vol. 57, no. 31, pp. 3985–3993, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus