Table 1: Liposomes, nanoliposomes, and proliposomes inhaled formulation along with the key findings.

DrugMethod of preparationMajor ingredientAssembly, device, capsules, and flow rate (L/min)Percentage of FPFReference

Liposomes
Amikacin sulfateRPE followed by LPHSPC, CS, and stearylamineTSI, Rotahaler®, 2, and 6029.2 ± 2.10[9]
BudesonideTFH followed by LP and BMEgg phosphatidylcholine, CS, and α-tocopherolTSI, Rotahaler, 2, and 6020.69 ± 1.50[10]
DapsoneTFE followed by SDDPPC, CS, and hydrolyzed gelatinACI, 2 HPMC, and 28.375.6 ± 1.60[11]
Gemcitabine hydrochlorideSE followed by LPHSPC, DSPG, mPEG2000-DSPE, and trehaloseACI, 3 gelatin, and 6056.12 ± 4.38[12]
Ketotifen fumarateTFH followed by FDSaturated egg phosphatidylcholine, CS, and sucroseTSI, 2, and 60 for 5 sec21.59 ± 1.53[13]
N-AcetylcysteineRPE followed by SDPhospholipid and CSACI, HandiHaler®, 3 gelatin, and 28.3 for 8.5 sec35.34 ± 3.86[14]
Recombinant secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (rSLPI)RE followed by LP and JM1,2-Dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-[phospho-L-serine] and CSTSI, Spinhaler®, 2 gelatin, and 6059.5 ± 5.40[15]
RifampicinTFE, coated with chitosan and carrageenan, followed by SDSPC, HSPC, and CSNGI, Turbospin®, 2 gelatin, and 7051.1 ± 2.30[16]
Salbutamol sulfateVesicular phospholipid gel technique followed by LP and BMSPCTSI, Spinhaler, 2, and 6041.51 ± 2.22[17]

Nanoliposomes
Amiloride hydrochlorideTFH and then passed through HPH, followed by SDHSPC, CS, and mannitolACI, Rotahaler, 2 gelatin,
and 28.3
67.6 ± 0.60[18]
TacrolimusTFE and then passed through HPH, followed by SDHPC and CSACI, 2 HPMC, and 28.371.1 ± 2.5[19]

Proliposomes
IsoniazidSDL-α-soybean phosphatidylcholine, CS, and 90% mannitolACI and 6071 ± 2.0[20]
RifapentineSDHSPC and stearylamineACI, 2 gelatin, and 60 for 4 sec92.5 ± 1.5[21]

SD: spray drying; FD: freeze drying; LP: lyophilization; RE: rotary evaporation; TFH: thin film hydration; HPH: high pressure homogenizer; CS: cholesterol; SPC: soybean phosphatidylcholine; HPC: hydrogenated phosphatidylcholine; HSPC: hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine; DPPC: dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine.