Table 2: Example of nanoparticulate inhaled formulation along with the key findings.

DrugMethod of preparationMajor ingredientAssembly, device, capsules, and flow rate (L/min)Percentage of FPFReference

Nanoparticles
CarvedilolAntisolvent precipitation-ultrasonication followed by LP.Pluronic F-127, sodium deoxycholate, and mannitolACI, Aerolizer®, #3, and 60 for 4 sec81.90 ± 4.30[25]
Calcium-disodium EDTAAntisolvent precipitation followed by SDCalcium-disodium EDTA and PVAACI, HPMC, and 60 for 5 Sec67.35 ± 2.27[26]
Salmon calcitoninIonic gelation method followed by SDSodium tripolyphosphate, chitosan, and MannitolACI, glass inhaler device, and 6063.50[27]

Nanoparticle agglomerates
BudesonideAntisolvent precipitation-ultrasonication followed by LPLecithin, cetyl alcohol, L-leucine, PVP, and Span 85ACI and 6095.9 ± 1.5[28]
LevofloxacinEmulsification solvent-evaporation method followed by SFDPolycaprolactone, mannitol, and leucineNGI, powder entrainment tube, and 8530.00[29]
Fluticasone propionate and albuterol sulfate (2 : 1 w/w)Antisolvent precipitation followed by precipitation and homogenizationLecithin, cetyl alcohol, L-leucine, PVP-K90, and Pluronic F-127ACI, #3 gelatin, and 28.3 for 4 SecFluticasone propionate, 84 ± 7, and albuterol sulfate, 70 ± 3[30]
Theophylline (nanorods agglomerates)Antisolvent precipitation-ultrasonication followed by LPStearic acidACI, Aerolizer, and 6081.9 ± 4.30[31]

Microparticulate/nanoparticulate systems
Azithromycinco-SDMethanolNGI, HandiHaler, #3 HPMC, and 60 for 10 sec53.45 ± 3.60[32]
Paclitaxelco-SDDPPC and DPPGNGI, HandiHaler, #3 HPMC, and 60 for 10 sec86.7 ± 2.60[33]
Paclitaxelco-SDDPPC and DPPE-PEGNGI, HandiHaler, #3 HPMC, and 60 for 10 sec77.9 ± 7.00[34]
Tobramycinco-SDMethanolNGI, HandiHaler, #3 HPMC, and 60 for 10 sec28.48 ± 3.39[32]
TobramycinEmulsion diffusion followed by co-SDPLGA and PVAMSLI, Turbospin, and gelatin52 ± 1.00[35]
Sodium cromoglicateLiquid antisolvent precipitation followed by immediate SDDeionized waterMSLI, monodose inhaler device, #3 HPMC, and 6062.02 ± 2.12[36]

SD: spray drying; co-SD: closed spray drying; FD: freeze drying; SFD: spray freeze drying; LP: lyophilization; PLGA: poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid); PVA: poly(vinyl alcohol); PVP: polyvinylpyrrolidone; DPPC: dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine; DPPG: dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol.