Table 3: SLN and NLC based DPI formulations.

DrugMethod of preparationMajor ingredientAssembly, device, capsules, and flow rate (L/min)Percentage of FPFReference

Solid lipid nanoparticles
ThymopentinDouble emulsion technique followed by co-SDGlyceryl monostearate and SPC (1 : 1, w/w), poloxamer 188, mannitol, and leucineTSI, #3 HPMC, and 60 for 10 sec51.07 ± 1.21[39]

Nanostructured lipid carriers
MontelukastMelt emulsification-homogenization followed by LPPrecirol ATO5, Capryol-90, and mannitolACI, Rotahaler, #3 gelatin, and 60 for 4 sec90.22 ± 2.60[40]
RosuvastatinMelt-emulsification and ultrasonication followed by LPLauric acid, Capryol-90, mannitol, and L-leucineACI, Rotahaler, #3 gelatin, and 6091.25 ± 3.57[41]

co-SD: closed spray drying; LP: lyophilization; SPC: soybean phosphatidylcholine.