Table 6: Summary of the pulmonary delivery of some therapeutic proteins and peptides.

DrugMethod of preparationMajor ingredientAssembly, device and capsules, flow rate (L/min)Percentage of FPFReference

GlucagonJMPharmatose and erythritolACI, Jethaler, #2 HPMC, and 28.3 for 10 sec33.9[72]
GlucagonJMCitric acid and Respitose® SV003ACI, Jethaler, #2 HPMC, and 28.325.0[73]
InsulinSDMannitol, bovine serum albumin, and aspartic acidACI, Turbospin, #2 HPMC, and 60[74]
InsulinHPH followed by SDPhospholipon® 90 H and hydrogenated soy lecithinMSLI, Aerolizer, #3 HPMC, and 100 for 2.4 sec[75]
subunit vaccine
SD and SFDInulinMSLI, Twincer®, and 53.7 for 3 sec37.00 and 23.00[76]
Pneumococcal surface proteinSDS. pneumoniaeNGI, Cyclohaler, #3 HPMC, and 60 for 4 sec[77]
Unfractionated heparinco-SDL-Leucine (1% w/w)TSI, Aerolizer, #3 gelatin, and 60 for 5 sec[78]
Recombinant human growth hormoneSDPolysorbate 20, zinc chloride, and lactoseACI, Spinhaler, #2 gelatin, and 60 for 4 sec38.52[79]
Recombinant antigen 85-BSDPLGAACI and 60 for 4 sec[80]

SD: spray drying; co-SD: closed spray drying; FD: freeze drying; SFD: spray freeze drying; LP: lyophilization; TFE: thin film evaporation; RE: rotary evaporation; SE: solvent evaporation; TFH: thin film hydration; HPH: high pressure homogenizer; CS: cholesterol; SPC: soybean phosphatidylcholine; HPC: hydrogenated phosphatidylcholine; HSPC: hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine; DPPC: dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine; DPPG: dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol.